A one-day tour of Nicosia and Kakopetria is a great way to experience the history, culture, and natural beauty of Cyprus. Starting in Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus, you can explore the island's rich history by visiting numerous historical sites, such as the Venetian walls, Ledra Street, and the buffering zones.
After a morning of sightseeing in Nicosia, head to the picturesque village of Kakopetria in the Troodos Mountains. This charming village is renowned for its traditional architecture, including beautiful stone houses and winding cobblestone streets. Stroll through the town to admire the beautiful homes or visit the Church of Transfiguration, which boasts stunning frescoes from the post-Byzantine era.
One of the most popular attractions in Kakopetria is the Karkotis River, which offers a perfect setting for relaxing sightseeing or a refreshing waterfall breeze of the clear waters. For those who enjoy hiking, the Vateri Nature Trail is a great way to explore the surrounding mountains and forests.
The Amiantos Mine, encompassing an area of 4.7 square kilometres, is the largest chrysotile asbestos deposit in Europe, with an average grade of 0.8% to 1.0%. Organised asbestos production at the current site began in 1904 and continued until the mine closed in 1988. During that time, an estimated 130 million tons of rock were extracted, yielding one million tons of asbestos fibres. After the mining lease ended in 1992, the government initiated extensive rehabilitation efforts, which commenced in the fall of 1995 under a multidisciplinary team's guidance. Their primary goals included stabilising, rehabilitating, and reforesting the waste dumps in the broader mine area, restoring industrial buildings, and designing a comprehensive master plan for the mine site.
Asbestos mineralisation is found in veins up to 2 cm thick, with fibres growing perpendicular to the vein direction. This mineralisation resulted from the serpentinisation of ultramafic rocks in the Troodos Ophiolite Complex. Seawater circulation through harzburgite and dunite caused the serpentinisation of the original minerals (primarily olivine) and their transformation into serpentine minerals such as antigorite, lizardite, and chrysotile.
Cyprus is considered one of the oldest sources of asbestos. The asbestos outcrops drew attention due to their unique fibrous texture, and people quickly discovered their uses, utilising their natural properties. In ancient times, particularly during the Classical and Roman periods, asbestos made shrouds for cremating the deceased, shoes, and lamp wicks. Picrolite, another mineral formed with chrysotile, was also extensively used in antiquity for creating jewellery and small figurines, such as cruciform figurines, during the Chalcolithic Period (3,900-2,500 BC), ranging in height from 5-6 cm to 15 cm.
The Kolokasi Parking Lot in Nicosia, Cyprus, has a payment machine that charges four euros for six hours of parking as of May 2023. A quirky aspect of this parking lot is a large printed sign on the payment machine that reads, "The machine is working!" This is unusual, as such signs typically indicate the opposite – that the device is out of order or not functioning. This sign might be placed there to reassure users that the machine is operational and can be used for payment.
The Venetian walls of Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus, are a unique and distinctive example of 16th-century military architecture. They were built between 1567 and 1570 by the Venetian Republic, which controlled Cyprus then, to protect the city from potential invasions, especially by the expanding Ottoman Empire.
The fortification design of the walls is characterised by their circular shape, with a perimeter of approximately 5 kilometres, encompassing the old city. The walls feature 11 heart-shaped bastions at regular intervals, three gates (Famagusta, Paphos, and Kyrenia), and a deep moat surrounding the walls. The walls were made of earth and stone, which helped to absorb cannon fire and provided better resistance to artillery attacks.
The outward-facing bastions are one of the key unique features of the Venetian walls. These bastions were designed to provide overlapping fields of fire, allowing defenders to protect one another from various angles. This design made it difficult for attackers to approach the walls without being exposed to defensive fire.
The Venetian walls of Nicosia hold significant historical and cultural value, as they are a testament to the city's rich past and the military engineering expertise of the Venetians. Today, the walls stand as an important tourist attraction and a symbol of the diverse heritage of Nicosia and Cyprus.
The Eleftheria (Liberty) Monument is located in Nicosia, Cyprus, and was unveiled on September 14, 1973. The monument commemorates the struggle of the Cypriot people for independence from British colonial rule, which lasted from 1878 to 1960. The memorial was created by the Greek sculptor George Zongolopoulos.
The figures in the monument symbolise various aspects of the Cypriot struggle for freedom. The central figure is a female personification of liberty, representing the spirit of freedom and the victory of the Cypriot people. She is holding a shield with the national emblem of Cyprus, symbolising the unity of the people and the country. The other figures in the monument depict different stages of the struggle for independence:
A man breaking chains represents the desire for liberation from British colonial rule. A woman with a baby symbolises the continuation of life and the importance of family during the struggle. A fighter holding a rifle represents the armed resistance of the Cypriot people. A figure holding a wreath is a symbolic representation of the memory of the fallen heroes who sacrificed their lives for the cause of independence. The Eleftheria Monument is an important cultural and historical symbol in Nicosia, serving as a reminder of the sacrifices made by the Cypriot people in their pursuit of independence and self-determination.
Ithaki Venue Night Club is a well-known spot for partygoers in Nicosia. It hosts a variety of events and themed nights, featuring both local and international DJs playing different types of music, including electronic dance music, pop, and hip-hop. The club offers a lively atmosphere where people can dance and socialise until the early morning. They should check their social media pages or website for upcoming events and dress code requirements before planning a night out at Ithaki Venue Night Club.
The nightlife in Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus, offers a diverse range of entertainment options for locals and tourists alike. The city has numerous bars, pubs, and nightclubs where you can enjoy a night out with friends, dance to various music genres, or relax with a drink. One such popular nightclub in Nicosia is the Ithaki Venue Night Club.
Near the Famagusta Gate, close to the Ithaki Venue Night Club, you can find an old aqueduct. This historical structure reminds us of the city's ancient past and the sophisticated engineering of previous civilisations that inhabited the area. The trench was likely built during the Roman or Byzantine period to supply water to the city. Today, it is an exciting landmark for those exploring the area around Famagusta Gate and the Venetian walls.
The combination of historical landmarks and a vibrant nightlife scene makes Nicosia an appealing destination for tourists and locals looking to experience the city's rich culture and entertainment offerings.
Famagusta Gate is one of the three main gates in the historic Venetian walls surrounding the old city of Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus. The gate is located on the city's eastern side and is named after the town of Famagusta, one of the primary destinations for travellers passing through the gate. The Venetian walls were constructed in the 16th century to protect Nicosia from potential invasions, and they are considered an important example of military architecture from that period.
Famagusta Gate has historical significance, as it was the main entry and exit point for the city. It is built in a baroque style with decorative elements, and its imposing structure showcases the engineering skills of the Venetians. During the British colonial rule (1878-1960), the gate was used as a warehouse for storing goods. Later, the area was restored and repurposed as a cultural centre, hosting various exhibitions, concerts, and other events throughout the year.
Visitors to Nicosia can appreciate the historical significance of the Famagusta Gate and the Venetian walls, representing the city's rich history and cultural heritage. The area around the gate has been revitalised recently, making it an enjoyable place for tourists and locals alike.
Nicosia, being an ancient city with a rich history, has a mix of architectural styles, ranging from traditional Cypriot houses to more modern buildings. In residential areas like the one around Polyviou Street, you may find a combination of older, single or two-story homes with traditional stone or plaster exteriors, as well as more contemporary apartment buildings. Some older houses may have been renovated or restored, maintaining their original charm while incorporating modern amenities.
Apomero Cafe in Nicosia, Cyprus, is a popular local establishment known for its cosy atmosphere, friendly service, and delicious coffee. It is an ideal spot for locals and tourists to relax, socialise, and taste the city's vibrant cafe culture.
Cypriot coffee culture is an integral part of daily life, with people gathering in cafes to chat, work, or take a break. Cypriot coffee is similar to Greek and Turkish coffee, brewed in a small, long-handled pot called a briki or cezve and often served with a glass of water on the side. The coffee is solid and thick and can be ordered with varying levels of sweetness: skeletons (unsweetened), metros (medium-sweet), or glycols (sweet).
Siesta culture is also common in Cyprus, especially during the hot summer. Siesta is a tradition that originated in Mediterranean countries, where people take a short nap or rest during the hottest part of the day, typically between 2 pm and 5 pm. Many businesses close during this time, allowing employees to escape the heat and recharge before resuming work in the more excellent evening hours.
Apomero Cafe is an excellent place to experience both Cypriot coffee culture and siesta culture. Patrons can enjoy a leisurely coffee, indulge in a light snack or dessert, and appreciate the slower pace of life typical of Mediterranean countries. The cafe's relaxed atmosphere is perfect for spending time with friends or unwinding with a good book during the siesta hours. By visiting Apomero Cafe, you can immerse yourself in the local culture and customs, making it a must-visit spot in Nicosia.
A workshop specialising in the repair and restoration of classic cars is a place where skilled technicians and artisans work to bring vintage automobiles back to their original condition. One such classic car brand is Triumph.
Triumph is a British car manufacturer founded in 1885 as a bicycle company by Siegfried Bettmann. In 1921, the company began producing automobiles, and throughout the years, it became known for its sports cars and saloons. Some of the most iconic models produced by Triumph include the TR series (TR2 to TR8), the Spitfire, the GT6, the Stag, and the Herald.
The name "Triumph" was chosen by the founder to represent success and victory. The brand grew in popularity and became synonymous with British sports cars during the 1950s, 60s, and 70s. However, financial difficulties and changes in the automotive industry eventually led to the demise of Triumph as a car manufacturer. The last car produced under the Triumph name was the Acclaim in 1984.
Today, Triumph cars are considered classics and are highly sought after by collectors and enthusiasts who appreciate the unique design, driving experience, and history associated with the brand. Workshops specialising in restoring classic cars, such as Triumphs, play a crucial role in preserving these vehicles and their heritage. These workshops employ skilled technicians with expertise in restoring vintage cars, from mechanical repairs to bodywork, paint, and interior restoration, ensuring that these classic automobiles can continue to be enjoyed by future generations.
The culture, art, and museums in Nicosia are indeed quite popular. The city's division into two parts has fostered a bustling social and political life, often reflected in its street art. For instance, there is a work of art that portrays the European Union (EU) not as a European woman but instead as a completely different figure whose features are combined with the Holy Grail. This artwork is particularly notable because it was created when the EU comprised only 26 member countries.
Street art in Nicosia can be seen as a powerful expression, often inspired by the city's political situation, history, and diverse culture. Such artworks allow artists to share their perspectives on various issues, engage with the community, and create thought-provoking visuals for passersby to contemplate. The evolving nature of street art also ensures that it remains relevant and reflects the current social and political climate.
In addition to street art, Nicosia is home to numerous museums celebrating the island's rich history and cultural heritage. Some noteworthy museums include the Cyprus Museum, the Byzantine Museum, and the Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia. By exploring these cultural institutions, visitors can better understand the city's past and the factors that have shaped its present identity.
The Chrysalliniotissa Church, also known as Panagia Chrysalliniotissa, is located in Nicosia, Cyprus. It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and its name is derived from the Greek words "chrysos" (gold) and "linen" (thread). Chrysalliniotissa refers to the "Our Lady of the Golden Flax". It is associated with an ancient icon of the Virgin Mary, which was believed to have been painted by the Apostle Luke.
The Chrysalliniotissa Church is believed to have been built in the 15th century, although some claim it was constructed earlier, during the Byzantine era. The church has undergone several restorations and renovations throughout its history, including one in the 18th century, which added its beautiful wooden-carved iconostasis.
The history of the church and the story of the icon of Panagia Chrysalliniotissa are deeply intertwined with the religious history of Cyprus. The Virgin Mary, or Panagia, is a significant figure in Orthodox Christianity, and the Chrysalliniotissa Church is one of the oldest and most important religious sites in Nicosia dedicated to her.
Visitors to the Chrysalliniotissa Church can appreciate its historical and religious significance, as well as it is beautiful architecture and interior decorations. The church serves as a reminder of the spiritual heritage of Nicosia and provides a quiet, peaceful space for worship and contemplation.
Agios Kassianos Church, also known as Ayios Kassianos, is in Nicosia, Cyprus. It is dedicated to Saint Kassianos, a martyr and a 4th-century Christian saint. He is also known as Saint Cassian of Imola or Saint Cassian of Rome. The church is believed to have been built in the 18th century, but it might have been constructed on the site of an earlier, possibly Byzantine-era church.
Saint Kassianos, also known as Saint Cassian of Imola or Saint Cassian of Rome, was a Christian martyr and saint from the 4th century. He was a schoolmaster in Imola, a town in present-day Italy, who was arrested and persecuted during the reign of Emperor Julian the Apostate for his Christian faith.
The story of Saint Kassianos' martyrdom is both tragic and inspiring. When he refused to renounce his Christian faith, he was sentenced to a slow and painful death. His captors tied him to a stake and left him to be killed by his students, armed with iron styluses, the sharp writing instruments used at the time. Despite the excruciating pain, Saint Kassianos remained steadfast in his faith until his death.
Saint Kassianos' story of unwavering devotion and commitment to Christianity in the face of persecution has inspired many believers over the centuries. His feast day is celebrated on August 13th in the Western Christian tradition and February 29th in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The church was built by the Greek Orthodox community of Nicosia, and as such, it reflects the religious and cultural heritage of the city.
The division of Nicosia, which occurred in 1963 and solidified in 1974, has profoundly impacted the city's religious sites, including Agios Kassianos Church. The church is located in the southern, Greek Cypriot-administered part of Nicosia, and it has likely faced challenges in terms of accessibility and maintenance due to the city's division. Nonetheless, it remains an important place of worship and spiritual significance for the local community.
Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus, is the only divided capital in the world. The city's division began after the Turkish invasion in 1974 when Turkey occupied the island's northern part. As a result, the city was divided into two parts: the Turkish northern part and the Greek southern part. The border between the city's two parts runs through the very heart of Nicosia and is called the "Green Line" or "ceasefire line."
Cyprus, including Nicosia, has a rich architectural heritage influenced by various cultures that have inhabited the island throughout history, such as the Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians, Ottomans, and the British. As a result, the architecture in Nicosia is diverse and includes traditional houses and buildings with distinctive features, such as colorful doors and window frames, stone walls, and tiled roofs.
Blue and red wooden doors are a local architectural feature or tradition in specific neighborhoods or areas of Nicosia.
It seems that the cafe culture on Minoos Street in Nicosia is only beginning to develop due to its proximity to the city's division. This area is now experiencing a revival after nearly fifty years.
As the area around Minoos Street begins to see revitalisation, it's likely that cafes and other establishments will emerge, reflecting the unique blend of cultures and influences that characterise Nicosia. These new businesses will contribute to the growing sense of community and cultural exchange in the area.
In such a dynamic environment, you can expect a mix of traditional Cypriot dishes and drinks, as well as new culinary experiences influenced by other cultures. As Minoos Street continues to develop, it will likely become a hub for locals and visitors to gather, socialise, and enjoy the evolving cafe culture in this part of Nicosia.
The diversion of the Piedras River by the Venetian architects allowed Ermou Street to develop and flourish without being affected by the seasonal flooding that previously caused damage to the area. This change in the city's infrastructure allowed for the growth of businesses, homes, and public spaces.
Ermou Street in Nicosia is named after the ancient Greek deity Hermes. In Greek mythology, Hermes was the messenger of the gods and the patron of commerce, merchants, and travellers. The name Ermou is derived from the Greek word "ερμής" (Hermes), and the street's name reflects its historical role as a hub of commercial activity in Nicosia.
Following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the subsequent division of Nicosia, the situation on Ermou Street changed dramatically. The bustling commercial activity declined, and many businesses closed down due to the economic impact of the city's division.
Pentadaktylou Street is one of the main streets that runs through the buffer zone and is located near the Ledra Palace checkpoint. This street has a complex history, as it was once a thriving commercial and residential area before the city's division. However, following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the area was heavily damaged, and most of its inhabitants were displaced.
Today, Pentadaktylou Street remains largely abandoned and inaccessible to the public due to its location within the buffer zone. However, recent efforts have been made to revive this area and restore its historical and cultural significance. In 2016, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) launched an initiative to renovate the Ledra Palace Hotel and surrounding areas, including Pentadaktylou Street, to create a new cultural and commercial hub in Nicosia. This initiative is ongoing, and there is hope that revitalising this area will bring new life and opportunities to Pentadaktylou Street and the more expansive buffer zone.
Tempon Street was once a bustling commercial and residential area, but following the division of Nicosia in 1974, the area was heavily damaged and its inhabitants were displaced. Today, many of the buildings along Tempon Street remain abandoned and in a state of disrepair.
United Nations (UN) maintains a peacekeeping mission in Cyprus called the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). This mission was established in 1964 to prevent further fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities and to contribute to the return of normal conditions on the island. Since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the subsequent division of the island, the UNFICYP's role has evolved.
The UNFICYP is responsible for monitoring the ceasefire lines and the buffer zone (also known as the Green Line) that separates the Greek Cypriot-controlled southern part of Cyprus from the Turkish Cypriot-controlled northern part. The buffer zone runs through the capital city of Nicosia and across the island, stretching approximately 180 kilometres (112 miles) from east to west.
The UNFICYP's activities in the Green Line include:
Patrolling and monitoring the buffer zone to ensure that the ceasefire is maintained and to prevent any escalation of tensions between the two sides. Liaising with both Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot military forces to build trust, reduce misunderstandings, and address any incidents that occur in the buffer zone. They are facilitating humanitarian assistance, such as access to health care, education, and social services for people living in the buffer zone. It is supporting efforts to clear landmines and unexploded ordnance within the buffer zone to improve safety for both residents and peacekeepers. Please note that the situation in Cyprus and the activities of the UNFICYP may have changed since September 2021. For the most up-to-date information on the UNFICYP's work in the Green Line and Cyprus, it is recommended to visit the United Nations website or the UNFICYP website.
Richard the Lionheart, King of England, arrived in Nicosia, Cyprus, in May 1191 during the Third Crusade. He had been shipwrecked on the island while on his way to the Holy Land. The ruler of Cyprus, Isaac Comnenus, demanded that Richard pay a ransom for his freedom and that of his men; Richard refused and instead captured the island's main port, Limassol. He then marched on to Nicosia, where he defeated Isaac's forces and took control of the city, installing a friendly ruler. Richard stayed in Nicosia for several weeks, during which time he strengthened the city's fortifications and prepared for his onward journey to the Holy Land.
Archaeological excavations in the area of the modern city hall describe the history of a building called Church B in Nicosia, which has two main architectural phases dating back to the Middle Byzantine period and the Medieval period. The building was initially a compressed cross-in-square type church that was later destroyed by fire and rebuilt in the same area as a single-aisled vaulted church. The evidence suggests that at least the initial phase of Church B was the Catholicon of a Middle Byzantine monastery of Nicosia, providing insight into the city's religious and cultural history.
After Richard, the Lionheart's departure, Nicosia came under the rule of the Lusignan dynasty, which established their capital in the city. During their reign, Nicosia flourished as a centre of culture, art, and trade, with numerous churches, monasteries, and public buildings constructed. In 1489, the Venetians took control of Nicosia and introduced significant architectural and urban changes, including constructing defensive walls, gates, and public buildings in a Venetian style. The Venetian rule of the city lasted until 1571, when the Ottoman Empire conquered Cyprus, and Nicosia became the capital of the Ottoman province of Cyprus.
Some archaeological evidence from the early time of Lusingan rulers is the ruins of Church A. It was a complex of two small single-aisled chapels surrounded by a cemetery. The northern chapel was built first, probably in the 12th century AD, in the compressed cross-in-square type. The southern chapel was added later, towards the end of the 12th or the beginning of the 13th century. Little is known about the history of Church A due to subsequent interventions to the site. However, there is evidence of later architectural phases, and movable finds that indicate the chapels belong to the architectural tradition of the Middle Byzantine period. The first course of the walls of the southern chapel is preserved, built with rectangular blocks of sandstone, and the lower part of the wall paintings that used to decorate the church is maintained on the interior south wall. Part of the lime plaster floor is also preserved, spread on a foundation of small to medium-sized pebbles, providing insight into the religious and cultural history of Nicosia during the Middle Byzantine period.
According to archaeological evidence, the area of present-day Nicosia has been inhabited since the Chalcolithic period. The city's first major roads were built during the Middle Byzantine and Medieval periods. One road connected the eastern and western gates of the city walls, while another connected the Cathedral of Agia Sofia with the Monastery of St. Mary of the Augustinians. Nicosia became the capital of Byzantine Cyprus shortly after AD 965, and the Lusignan kings built the city's walls in the 14th century. The Venetians demolished the old walls in 1567 and erected new ones, which still stand today. The excavation of Palaion Demarcheion provided evidence that copper coins from the Byzantine Empire were used in Nicosia, possibly indicating an increase in government spending and the city's rise as the capital of Cyprus. The two main roads of Nicosia continued to be important commercial routes during the Ottoman and British periods.
The excavation at the Palaion Demarcheion site in the historic center of Lefkosia is the largest systematic excavation ever conducted within the walled city, offering a diachronic perspective into the city's history from the Middle Bronze Age to the 20th century. The site provides insight into the continuous human activity in the area, with a dense and complex system of architectural remains preserved. The site contains remains of religious and secular buildings, workshops, cemeteries, and a water management system. The excavation has provided significant information on the everyday life, commercial contacts, and people of Lefkosia, including human remains discovered in the cemeteries of two excavated churches. The findings are unique and provide valuable insight into Byzantine and Medieval Lefkosia.
The excavation of Palaion Demarcheion caused public concern due to its association with the construction of the new Town Hall of Lefkosia, and the international archaeological community was alarmed by the potential loss of an important site. After extensive discussions and negotiations, it was decided that the new building and antiquities would coexist, resulting in a unique historical and urban environment. Footbridges were designed to integrate the archaeological site into the modern urban landscape, allowing people to view the excavated areas. The preservation and promotional work of the site, in collaboration with the Municipality of Lefkosia, have created a channel of communication with the long past of Lefkosia and provide a beneficial symbiosis for the city and its visitors.
This unexpected outdoor art installation is supposed to provide an overview of various global crises and their impact on society, politics, and individual lives. It also suggests that the rapid spread of social media has played a significant role in shaping collective reactions to these crises.
The artwork was made by Nikos Kouroussis and Constantinos Kalisperas at the Nicosia Municipal Arts Centre. This artwork features an old mobile telecommunications station from the United Nations forces in Cyprus, attached to the south side of the building. The artists have carved all the resolutions of the United Nations Security Council on Cyprus onto the shiny surface, reflecting a sequence of numbers projected onto the sidewalk below.
The artwork engages with themes of security, surveillance, communication, and protection. As it is attached to the Municipal Arts Centre's library, the massive, passive construction becomes a contemporary monument representing "collapsed endeavours," perhaps symbolising the many challenges faced by various nations and communities worldwide.
The Apostle Barnabas Cathedral in Nicosia is dedicated to St. Barnabas, the patron saint of Cyprus. According to Christian tradition, St. Barnabas was a Cypriot Jew who was one of the earliest Christian missionaries and a companion of St. Paul. He is believed to have been martyred on the island of Cyprus in the 1st century AD.
Saint Barnabas, also known as Barnabas the Apostle, was one of the earliest Christian disciples in Jerusalem. He was born in Cyprus, but his family was of Jewish descent. His name was Joseph, but he was later given Barnabas, which means "son of encouragement."
Barnabas was a prominent member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem and was one of the few who both the Jewish and Gentile believers trusted. He was known for his generosity, kindness, and encouragement to others, and he played an essential role in spreading the Christian faith.
In the book of Acts in the New Testament, Barnabas is described as a companion of the Apostle Paul on his first missionary journey. The two travelled together to various cities, including Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, preaching the Gospel and establishing Christian communities.
Barnabas was later sent by the church in Jerusalem to Antioch, where he worked with Paul to establish a thriving Christian community. He is credited with bringing Paul into the fold and helping to integrate him into the Christian community.
Despite his many contributions to the early Christian church, Barnabas is not mentioned as frequently as other apostles in the New Testament. However, his legacy has endured through the centuries, and he is still venerated as a saint in many Christian denominations.
The cathedral was first built in the 18th century by the Ottoman governor of Cyprus, Hassan Pasha, who converted a former Byzantine church into a mosque. After the British took control of Cyprus in the late 19th century, the mosque was converted into a Christian church dedicated to St. Barnabas.
Over the years, the cathedral has undergone several renovations and additions. In the 1930s, a new bell tower was added, and in the 1970s, a new apse was built. In the early 2000s, the cathedral underwent a major renovation that included the restoration of its frescoes, the installation of a new roof, and the reconstruction of its northern and southern walls.
For the local people of Nicosia, the Apostle Barnabas Cathedral is an important religious and cultural landmark. It symbolises the island's rich Christian heritage and is a popular destination for pilgrims and tourists. The recent renovations have helped to preserve the cathedral's historic character and ensure that it will continue to be an essential part of Nicosia's cultural landscape for years to come.
The Archbishop's Palace in Nicosia was initially built as a monastery in the late 18th century. It was used as a monastery until 1924, when it was converted into the residence of the Archbishop of Cyprus. The building was renovated several times, with the most recent renovation in the 1990s.
On the grounds of the palace, there is a monument dedicated to Makarios III, the first President of Cyprus. Makarios III was a Greek Orthodox bishop before he became involved in politics. He played a significant role in the history of Nicosia and Cyprus.
As a bishop in the 1950s, Makarios III was a vocal advocate for Cypriot independence from British rule. He was eventually exiled to Seychelles by the British government, but he continued to work for Cypriot independence from there. After Cyprus gained independence in 1960, Makarios III became the country's first President.
As President, Makarios III worked to establish Cyprus as a sovereign state and improve the lives of its citizens. He faced challenges from within and outside the country, including a coup attempt in 1974 that ultimately led to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Makarios III died in 1977, but his legacy lives on in Cyprus. The monument on the grounds of the Archbishop's Palace is a tribute to his contributions to the country and his role in its history.
Kyprianos Square is located in the heart of the old town of Nicosia, Cyprus. It is named after Archbishop Kyprianos, who was one of the leaders of the Cypriot resistance against Ottoman rule in the late 16th century and was executed in 1821 for his involvement in the Greek War of Independence.
One of the most notable buildings on Kyprianos Square is the Archbishop's Palace, which was built in the late 1950s to serve as the residence of the Archbishop of Cyprus. The Palace is a beautiful example of modern Cypriot architecture and features a large central courtyard with a fountain.
Other notable institutions in the vicinity of Kyprianos Square include the Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation, which is located in a beautiful neoclassical building that dates back to the early 20th century, and the Nicosia Municipal Arts Centre, which is housed in the renovated Old Powerhouse building and features exhibitions of contemporary art.
In addition to these institutions, Kyprianos Square is also home to several cafes, restaurants, and shops, making it a popular destination for locals and tourists. The square is a vibrant hub of activity in the heart of Nicosia and is a must-visit destination for anyone interested in exploring the city's rich cultural heritage.
In the 20th century, Nicosia, like the rest of Cyprus, experienced significant political and social changes. In 1925, the British colonial government implemented a new constitution that provided for a partially elected Legislative Council and increased the number of Greek Cypriots in the civil service. This move was a broader effort to modernise and liberalise the island's administration.
One of the quarters in Nicosia that was influenced by these changes was the Ayios Antonios neighbourhood located in the southeast corner of the city. It is one of the 24 neighbourhoods within the walls of Nicosia and covers 97 streets. At the last Census in 2011, it had a population of 5,801, an increase from 5,233 in 2001. The neighbourhood was extended in 1923 to include an area outside the walls between Larnaca Road and the Constanza Bastion.
The parish church of Ayios Antonios was established in 1736, but the walls of the church incorporate architectural elements from previous churches. The church is situated on Ayios Antonios Street, about three feet below street level. It has three arched entrances and a tall bell tower with a single aisle inside. The arched porch has a pointed vault, while a similar vault with imposts is the principal feature of the interior. There are also windows at the sides and a gallery over the entrance, along with a delicate canopy similar to the one in the Trypiotis church. The front of the church bears the date 1736, and a colonnade surrounds the irregular courtyard.
Ayios Antonios is home to several other important buildings, including the Ayios Antonios school and the Ayios Antonios municipal market. The school, formally known as "Evgenias and Antoniou Theodotou Primary School," is one of the three oldest primary schools in Nicosia. It has been in its present location since 1926, although the army appropriated the building for war use during 1940-44.
Archmandrid Kyprianou Street in Nicosia is named after Archbishop Makarios III's close associate, the Very Reverend Kyprianos Kyprianou, an important figure in the Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Cyprus faced political turmoil and violence due to tensions between the Greek and Turkish communities. President Makarios sought a peaceful solution to the conflict but was opposed by some who wanted enosis (union with Greece). A military junta in Greece backed paramilitary groups in Cyprus, and tensions escalated with incidents and attacks. Archbishop Makarios faced opposition from within the Church as well but remained a powerful and popular leader. Despite pressure from Greece, Makarios refused to make concessions that would compromise Cyprus' independence. The conflict continued, eventually leading to a period of armed civil war until the death of guerrilla leader Grivas and political changes in Greece shifted the balance of power.
Kyprianos Kyprianou (1932-2002) was a Cypriot politician who served as the President of the House of Representatives of Cyprus, as well as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Defense. He played a significant role in the struggle for Cypriot independence and served as a negotiator during the Cyprus dispute. He was also instrumental in the establishment of the Republic of Cyprus and the drafting of its constitution. Kyprianou Street in Nicosia is named after him in recognition of his contributions to the country.
Onisilou Street is a major street located in the center of Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus. It runs in a north-south direction and intersects with other main streets such as Ledra, Stasinou, and Themistokli Dervi. The street is home to a variety of businesses, including restaurants, cafes, shops, and offices. One of the notable landmarks on Onisilou Street is the building of the Ministry of Interior, which is located near the intersection with Stasinou Street. Overall, Onisilou Street is a bustling and lively area in the heart of Nicosia, with a mix of commercial and residential properties.
In the context of Chatzigeorgaki Kornesiou Street in Nicosia, it is essential to understand that this area is not known for being a poor district. This street is associated with the Chatzigeorgakis Kornesiou mansion, which represents an affluent part of Nicosian history and architecture during the period of Turkish rule.
While there may be areas of economic disparity or poor districts in Nicosia, Chatzigeorgaki Kornesiou Street itself is not indicative of such an area. Instead, it serves as a symbol of the city's rich cultural and architectural history.
However, like in any city, socio-economic contrasts may exist between various districts or neighbourhoods within Nicosia. Efforts to address disparities and improve living conditions in underprivileged areas can involve urban development projects, social programs, and affordable housing initiatives, requiring collaboration between local governments, non-profit organisations, and community members.
The Chatzigeorgakis Kornesiou mansion is the most significant example of urban architecture during the Turkish rule in Nicosia. Located near the Archdiocese in the Agios Antonios parish, it was the traditional residence of affluent Greeks.
Remarkably, the architectural style resembles a medieval manor house, which is unsurprising considering it was allegedly constructed on the site of a previous (possibly medieval) manor house. The restoration of this residence received the prestigious Europa Nostra award.
Hatzigeorgakis Kornesios held one of the highest positions offered to non-Muslims by the Ottoman authorities, serving as a dragoman, or interpreter of the Gate, from 1779 until he died in 1809. After being falsely accused, he was brought to Constantinople and executed.
Built-in 1793, the two-story house features the owner's monogram and construction date on a marble slab within the entrance. The property is P-shaped and encompasses an interior courtyard with a striking fountain and private Turkish bath (hammam).
The ground floor housed the service quarters, kitchen, stables, and various storage and support spaces. The main rooms, including the formal reception area and bedrooms, were connected to the solar system. The onda, or formal reception room, showcases intricate wood carvings, gold ornamentation, and a potential oil painting of an imaginary city.
Today, a covered wooden staircase with a stone base leads from the courtyard to the first floor's entrance hall, the solar room. The main rooms, official reception area, and bedrooms are again connected to the solar system. The onda, situated at the east wing's end, is distinct from other rooms with its ornate, gilded decorations and possible oil painting of an imaginary city.
Though not original, the mansion's furniture dates back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, donated by the house's final owner. The first-floor rooms serve as exhibition spaces, displaying a range of materials and authentic objects to educate visitors about the Hatzigeorgakis family and the mansion's restoration. Exhibits also feature artefacts from the Byzantine, medieval, and Turkish rule periods.
Patriarch Grigoriou Street in Nicosia is named in honour of Patriarch Gregory (Grigoriou in Greek). This title has been held by several prominent leaders in the Christian Orthodox Church throughout history.
The proximity of Patriarchou Grigoriou Street to Saint Barnabas Church further emphasises the interwoven relationship between the religious history, culture, and daily life of the people in Nicosia.
It can be inferred that the street's proximity to Saint Barnabas Church likely made it an important location within the local community.
Having a mansion or business near a prominent religious institution, such as a church, may have been seen as prestigious due to the significance of the church in the lives of the community members. Additionally, the street's name, Patriarch Grigoriou, which pays tribute to an influential Orthodox Christian leader, could also contribute to the perceived prestige of the area.
In general, owning a mansion or operating a business in a historically or culturally significant area often carries prestige and status. This would likely be the case for properties and companies located on or near Patriarch Grigoriou Street in Nicosia, particularly given its close connection to Saint Barnabas Church and the broader religious history of the region.
Hamam Omerye Baths, also known as Omeriye Hamam, is a historic Turkish bath located in Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus. This well-preserved historical site originated in the 14th century when it was built as a church dedicated to Saint Mary. Following the Ottoman conquest of Nicosia in 1571, the church was converted into a hammam, a traditional Turkish bathhouse.
Hamam Omerye is named in honour of the Ottoman commander, Lala Mustafa Pasha, who allowed the church's conversion into a hamam as a tribute to the Caliph Omar (Omerye is derived from Omar). The bathhouse is known for its architectural features, which reflect a blend of Byzantine and Ottoman styles, showcasing the region's rich and diverse history.
Today, Hamam Omerye Baths is a popular tourist attraction in Nicosia and has been carefully restored to offer visitors a glimpse into the history and culture of the region. In addition to its historical significance, the bathhouse also functions as a modern spa, offering guests a range of wellness and relaxation services inspired by traditional Turkish bath rituals. The restoration of the Hamam Omerye Baths was recognised with the Europa Nostra award in 2006 for its successful conservation of cultural heritage.
Omeriye Mosque, located in Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus, is a significant historical and religious site. Originally built as the Augustinian Church of Saint Mary in the 14th century, it was converted into a mosque following the Ottoman conquest of Nicosia in 1571.
The name "Omeriye" is derived from the Arabic name "Omar," honoring Caliph Omar, an important figure in Islamic history. The mosque's conversion was carried out under the orders of Lala Mustafa Pasha, the Ottoman commander, as a tribute to Caliph Omar.
Omeriye Mosque showcases a mix of architectural styles, reflecting both its origins as a Gothic church and its conversion into a mosque with Ottoman influences. The building features pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, and intricate stone carvings reminiscent of Gothic architecture. However, after its conversion, traditional Islamic elements, such as a minaret and mihrab, were added.
Today, Omeriye Mosque serves as a place of worship for Nicosia's Muslim community and attracts visitors interested in the city's diverse history and cultural heritage. The mosque is a testament to the rich tapestry of influences that have shaped Nicosia and Cyprus throughout the centuries, and it stands as a symbol of the island's complex past.
Trikoupi Street is a prominent street located in Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus. Nicosia has rich history and culture, with many historical sites and attractions. As a main street in the town, Trikoupi Street has various shops, restaurants, and cafes, offering both locals and visitors a chance to experience the vibrant life of Nicosia.
During road works involving asphalt replacement, the street may appear chaotic with heavy machinery, construction crews, and disrupted traffic. The old asphalt is removed, revealing underlying layers, and new asphalt is applied, compacted, and finished with line painting and other touches. Pedestrians and drivers should exercise caution and follow posted signs or instructions to ensure safety and minimise disruption.
After the 1974 war, Nicosia underwent a transformation that included changes to street names, reflecting a shift in cultural influences. In this example, Galip Street (near Trikoupi) was renamed "Elpinikis," adopting a Greek name. This change suggests a move away from the city's Ottoman past, as evidenced by the rarity of spotting Arabic numerals from that era.
Fifty years after the division of Nicosia, the city has experienced significant growth and development on both sides of the buffer zone. Efforts have been made to preserve and restore the historical and cultural heritage of the city, as well as to improve infrastructure and public spaces. While challenges remain due to the ongoing political situation, Nicosia continues to evolve as a vibrant and diverse city, with residents and visitors alike enjoying its rich history and modern amenities.
In the heart of Greek Nicosia, the Old Town boasts a rich history, diverse architecture, and charming streets like Sofokleous Street. Enclosed by 16th-century Venetian walls, this area features historical sites, museums, and the lively Laiki Geitonia neighborhood. The blend of traditional and modern elements creates a vibrant atmosphere that showcases Nicosia's unique cultural heritage.
In Nicosia, as well as other Mediterranean cities, it is a common tradition to create shade in the streets using large fabric canopies or awnings. This practice is particularly prevalent during the hot summer when temperatures can rise significantly. By stretching the fabric across the streets, it provides much-needed shade for pedestrians, helping to keep the roads more relaxed and more comfortable for residents and visitors alike. These canopies not only offer a practical solution for heat relief but also contribute to the charm and character of the city's streetscape.
In Faneromenis Street, Nicosia's Old Town, you can find street cafes that offer a cosy and inviting atmosphere for both locals and tourists. These cafes provide an opportunity to sit back, relax, and enjoy a cup of coffee or tea while taking in the vibrant surroundings of the historic street. They often serve traditional Cypriot beverages and snacks, allowing visitors to experience local flavours and culture. Street cafes in Faneromenis Street contribute to the lively ambience, creating a perfect setting for socialising, people-watching, or simply enjoying a break during sightseeing.
Faneromenis Street is a notable street located in the Old Town of Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus. Named after the nearby Faneromeni Church, an important religious site and architectural landmark in Nicosia, the street is a popular destination for locals and tourists alike. Faneromenis Street features a mix of traditional and modern architecture, including shops, cafes, and restaurants, where visitors can experience the vibrant Cypriot culture and enjoy the lively atmosphere. The street's unique blend of historic charm and contemporary amenities makes it an essential part of the city's urban fabric.
The Faneromeni Church, also known as Panagia Faneromeni or Panagia Phaneromeni, is located in the Old Town of Nicosia, Cyprus. The church, dedicated to the Holy Mother of God (Panagia), has a rich history that dates back to the Byzantine period.
The original church was built around the 13th century on the ruins of an ancient temple. However, the current structure was constructed between 1872 and 1873, replacing the older church in disrepair. The new church was designed in the Neo-Gothic architectural style, which was popular then.
The Faneromeni Church has played a significant role in the religious and cultural life of Cyprus. It served as the central place of worship for the Orthodox community in Nicosia and was a centre for the Greek national movement during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The church's historical and architectural importance makes it a notable landmark in Nicosia, attracting locals and tourists who appreciate its beauty and heritage.
The mixture of architectural styles seen in Faneromeni Church, such as Neoclassical, Byzantine, and Medieval Latin, can be attributed to various factors:
Historical influences: Throughout its history, Cyprus has been under the rule of different empires and cultures, including the Byzantine, Venetian, and Ottoman Empires. Each of these ruling powers brought its architectural style to the island, influencing the construction and design of religious buildings. Adaptation and renovation: As the original church dated back to the 13th century and was in disrepair, the new Faneromeni Church, built in the 19th century, incorporated elements from different architectural styles that coexisted during the time of its construction. The designers might have combined these styles to create a unique and appealing appearance while preserving some elements from the previous structure. Expression of identity: The architectural mixture might also reflect the Cypriot people's desire to express their individuality and cultural heritage. Combining various styles could signify the rich history and diverse influences that have shaped the religious and cultural landscape of Nicosia and Cyprus. The blend of architectural styles in Faneromeni Church contributes to its distinctive character and makes it a unique landmark that represents the history and culture of Nicosia.
The Marble Mausoleum in Faneromeni Square is a significant historical monument next to Faneromeni Church in Nicosia, Cyprus. It was erected in 1878 in memory of four Cypriot bishops and other prominent figures executed by the Ottomans during the Greek War of Independence (1821-1830).
The monument, also known as the Faneromeni Tomb or the Faneromeni Memorial, symbolises Cypriot patriotism and resistance against Ottoman rule. The bishops and other individuals commemorated by the mausoleum were accused of conspiring against the Ottoman Empire, supporting the Greek revolution, and promoting the idea of Enosis (the unification of Cyprus with Greece).
The Marble Mausoleum is a solemn and powerful reminder of the sacrifices made by those who fought for freedom and national identity. Its presence in Faneromeni Square, alongside the historic Faneromeni Church, highlights the rich history and cultural significance of the area.
The Cross of Missirikos appears to refer to an old Byzantine church that featured Gothic Italian elements in its architecture. In 1571, following the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus, the church was converted into the Araplar Mosque. This transformation was not uncommon during that period, as the Ottomans often converted churches into mosques as a way to establish their presence and religious dominance in the conquered territories.
Faneromeni School, also known as the Faneromeni Primary School or Faneromeni Elementary School, is a historic educational institution in the Old Town of Nicosia, Cyprus, near the Faneromeni Church and Faneromeni Square. Established in 1857 by Archbishop Makarios I, it is considered one of the oldest and most significant schools in Cyprus.
The school was crucial in promoting the Greek language and culture during Ottoman rule and later under British colonial administration. It served as a centre for education and enlightenment, fostering national consciousness and a sense of identity among Cypriot students.
The building itself is an architectural landmark featuring neoclassical design elements. Over the years, the Faneromeni School has contributed to developing the intellectual and cultural life of Nicosia and Cyprus, producing many notable alums and acting as a symbol of the island's rich educational heritage.
Lefkonos Street is a famous street in the Old Town of Nicosia, Cyprus. Located within the historic city walls, Lefkonos Street and its surrounding area are characterized by narrow, winding cobblestone streets and a mix of traditional and modern architecture.
The street offers a glimpse into the rich history and culture of Nicosia, with old stone buildings, restored houses, and traditional workshops standing alongside modern shops, cafes, and restaurants. Lefkonos Street is a popular destination for both locals and tourists who want to experience the authentic charm of Nicosia's Old Town and explore its vibrant atmosphere.
As you stroll along Lefkonos Street, you can take in the unique blend of old and new, discover hidden gems, and enjoy the lively spirit that defines Nicosia's historic heart.
Faneromeni Library, also known as the Faneromeni Reading Club or the Faneromeni Cultural Centre, is a historic library and cultural institution near the Faneromeni Church and Faneromeni Square in the Old Town of Nicosia, Cyprus. Established in 1924, the library has played an essential role in fostering the intellectual and cultural development of Nicosia and Cyprus.
The library houses a vast collection of books, manuscripts, and periodicals in Greek, Turkish, and other languages, focusing on the history, culture, and literature of Cyprus and the surrounding region. The Faneromeni Library also serves as a hub for various cultural and educational activities, including lectures, seminars, exhibitions, and artistic performances.
The Faneromeni Library is a testament to the island's rich literary and intellectual heritage, and its continued existence contributes to preserving and promoting Cypriot culture and history. It is a valuable resource for locals and visitors who wish to explore the depth and diversity of Cyprus's past and present.
Nikokleous Street is located in the Old Town of Nicosia, Cyprus. It is situated within the historic city walls and is known for its charming atmosphere and unique blend of architectural styles.
Walking along Nikokleous Street, you can observe traditional Cypriot houses, small shops, cafes, and restaurants. The street offers a glimpse into the daily life of the local community and provides an opportunity to experience the authentic culture of Nicosia.
The Old Town of Nicosia, including streets like Nikokleous, is a testament to the city's rich history and diverse influences. It is an ideal place for visitors to explore and appreciate the character and heritage of Cyprus's capital city.
Sheftalia traditional Cypriot sausages are commonly found in Nicosia and throughout Cyprus. Sheftalia is made from minced pork or lamb, mixed with onions, parsley, and various spices, and then wrapped in caul fat (membrane) before being grilled over charcoal.
Sheftalia can be found in many local taverns and restaurants in Nicosia, and they are often served as part of a traditional Cypriot meze, a selection of small dishes that are enjoyed as an appetiser or main course. The sausages are typically filled with pita bread, fresh vegetables, and local dips like tzatziki, tahini, or taramasalata. They can also be enjoyed as a filling for traditional Cypriot sandwiches called souvlakia, which consist of grilled meat, vegetables, and sauces wrapped in pita bread.
If you are looking to try sheftalia or other traditional Cypriot dishes in Nicosia, consider visiting one of the many local taverns or restaurants that serve authentic Cypriot cuisine.
The Green Line is a demarcation line in Cyprus that divides the island and its capital, Nicosia, into the Greek Cypriot-controlled south and the Turkish Cypriot-controlled north. The line was originally drawn in 1963 to prevent violence between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities, and it was solidified after the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
In Nicosia, the Green Line runs through the heart of the city, effectively dividing it into two separate parts. Several crossing points allow pedestrians and vehicles to move between the north and south of Nicosia:
Ledra Palace crossing: Located near the historic Ledra Palace Hotel, this crossing point is mainly used by pedestrians, cyclists, and United Nations personnel.
Ledra Street crossing (also called Lokmaci crossing): This pedestrian crossing is located at the end of Ledra Street, a popular shopping area in the south, and connects to Arasta Street in the north.
Ayios Dhometios (Metehan) crossing: This crossing is open to both pedestrians and vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, and bicycles. Crossing the Green Line typically involves showing identification (such as a passport or national ID) and going through a brief security check. The process is generally straightforward, and both locals and tourists can use the crossing points to explore both sides of Nicosia and experience the unique blend of cultures and histories that the city has to offer.
Ledra Street is a bustling pedestrian street located in the heart of Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus. It is one of the city's main shopping and entertainment thoroughfares and is particularly famous for its vibrant atmosphere, historic landmarks, and diverse mix of retail shops, cafes, and restaurants.
Ledra Street stretches from Eleftheria Square to the Green Line checkpoint, a crossing point into the Turkish Cypriot-controlled northern part of the city. After crossing the checkpoint, the street continues as Arasta Street in Northern Nicosia.
The street has various retail outlets, including international brands, local boutiques, souvenir shops, and traditional handicraft stores. Cafes and restaurants offer a wide selection of local and international cuisines, and the street often features live music and street performances.
In addition to its commercial appeal, Ledra Street is also rich in history and culture. Historical landmarks such as the Byzantine-era Chrysaliniotissa Church, the Omeriye Mosque, and the Leventis Municipal Museum can be found near the street.
As one of the liveliest areas in Nicosia, Ledra Street is a must-visit destination for anyone looking to experience the city's unique blend of history, culture, and modern urban life.
Ledra Street is a bustling pedestrian street located in the heart of Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus, where many restaurants and street vendors offer gyros as popular food items. Gyros is a traditional Greek dish made with meat (usually pork, chicken, or lamb) that has been cooked on a vertical rotisserie and is often served in a loaf of pita bread, accompanied by vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, and lettuce, as well as sauces such as tzatziki or hot sauce.
On Ledra Street, there are several fast-food restaurants and food trucks that specialise in serving gyros, such as Pambos Gyros, which is a popular local chain of gyros restaurants. Visitors to Ledra Street who want to try authentic Cypriot and Greek street food should consider sampling some delicious gyros options.
Nikolaou and Yioi are one of the oldest and most well-established printing houses in Cyprus, dating back to the early twentieth century. The company was founded in 1925 by Georgios Nikolaou and his sons and was initially located in the heart of Nicosia's old town.
During the mid-twentieth century, there were several newspapers and publications in Nicosia that were affiliated with the nationalist and anti-colonial movement in Cyprus and that supported the political positions of Samson and Archbishop Makarios III.
One of the most prominent newspapers of the time was the "Makarios" newspaper, which was founded in 1948 and was closely associated with the Archbishop's political movement. The newspaper advocated for the independence of Cyprus and the removal of British colonial rule. It played a significant role in shaping public opinion in the country during the struggle for independence.
Another newspaper that supported the nationalist and anti-colonial movement was "Alithia", which was founded in 1952 and is still in circulation today. While not explicitly associated with Samson or Makarios, "Alithia" has long been known for supporting anti-colonial and nationalist causes in Cyprus and has often advocated for political positions that align with those of Samson and Makarios.
While there is no specific evidence that Nikolaou and Yioi were involved in the production of nationalist and anti-colonial publications during the mid-twentieth century, it is possible that they played some role in the dissemination of these materials.
Ledra Arcade is a historic shopping center located in the heart of Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus. The arcade was built in the early twentieth century, and was originally a covered market that served as a hub of commercial activity in the city.
Over the years, Ledra Arcade has played an important role in the social and economic life of Nicosia, and has been a popular destination for locals and visitors alike. The arcade is known for its unique architectural style, which blends elements of Art Deco and Neo-Classical design, and for its many shops and boutiques that offer a wide range of products and services.
In recent years, Ledra Arcade has undergone extensive renovations and modernization, while still retaining its historic character and charm. The arcade is now a vibrant and bustling hub of activity in the heart of Nicosia and continues to be a popular destination for shoppers, diners, and visitors to the city.
Onasagorou street is a historic pedestrian street located in the heart of Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus. The street dates back to the medieval period, and is known for its unique blend of architectural styles, which reflect the city's long and diverse history.
The name Onasagorou derives from the Greek word "onos" which means "donkey", and "agora" which means "marketplace". The name reflects the street's historical role as a commercial hub where goods were bought and sold, often transported by donkey. The name can be translated as "Donkey Market Street" or "Street of the Donkey Market".
Eleftheria Square is a large public square located in the heart of Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus. The square was built in the 1970s as part of a major urban development project, and has since become one of the most important landmarks in the city.
The construction of Eleftheria Square in the 1970s was part of a larger urban development project that was intended to modernize the city of Nicosia and create a new sense of national identity for Cyprus. At the time, Cyprus was still recovering from a period of political instability and violence, including a coup d'etat and subsequent invasion by Turkish forces in 1974.
The construction of Eleftheria Square was seen as a way to express the new identity and aspirations of the Cypriot people, and was intended to symbolize the country's emergence as a modern, democratic, and prosperous nation. The square was designed to be a grand public space that would serve as a focal point for civic life in Nicosia, and would showcase the country's cultural heritage and artistic achievements.
The name "Eleftheria" means "freedom" in Greek. The square was named after the concept of freedom to symbolize Cyprus' struggle for independence and its emergence as a modern, democratic nation. The name reflects the values of liberty and self-determination that have been central to the country's history and identity, and serves as a reminder of the importance of these ideals in the ongoing development of Cyprus as a nation.
D'Avila Bastion is a historic fortification located in the walled city of Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus. The Bastion was built in the 16th century by the Venetians as part of the city's defensive walls and was named after the commander of the Venetian forces, Francesco D'Avila.
The Bastion is known for its distinctive architecture, which features a series of giant towers and walls that rise above the surrounding buildings. The fortification was built using local limestone and is notable for its intricate stonework and decorative details.
Today, D'Avila Bastion is a popular tourist attraction open to visitors year-round. The Bastion offers stunning views of the city and the surrounding countryside and provides a glimpse into the rich history and heritage of Nicosia and Cyprus.
Konstantinou Palaiologou was a Greek Cypriot woman who played a crucial role in the anti-colonial struggle against British rule in Cyprus during the mid-20th century. She was born in 1900 in the village of Lysi in the Famagusta district of Cyprus.
Palaiologou was an active member of the left-wing Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL), a significant force in the anti-colonial movement. She was also a founding member of the Cyprus Women's Union, which advocated for women's rights and social justice.
During the 1950s, Palaiologou was involved in underground resistance activities against the British colonial authorities. She was arrested and imprisoned several times for her movements and was known for her steadfast commitment to the cause of Cypriot independence.
After Cyprus gained independence from Britain in 1960, Palaiologou continued to be involved in politics and social activism. She remained a prominent voice in the struggle for women's rights and social justice and was widely regarded as a pioneer and role model for generations of Cypriot women.
Today, Konstantinou Palaiologou is remembered as a hero of the Cypriot independence struggle and as a symbol of the courage, determination, and resilience of the Cypriot people in the face of oppression and injustice.
There are several public toilets located near the Aristocyprou district in Nicosia. One option is the public toilets situated in Eleftheria Square, which is a short walk from Aristocyprou Street. These toilets are open year-round and are free to use.
Another option is the public toilets in the Municipal Gardens, also within walking distance of Aristocyprou Street. These toilets are open during daylight hours and are free to use.
In addition to these public toilets, many cafes and restaurants in the Aristocyprou district also offer restroom facilities for their customers. Visitors to the area should be aware that public restrooms in Nicosia can sometimes be challenging to find, so it's a good idea to plan and ask locals or business owners for recommendations.
Aristocyprou Street is known for its historic architecture and charming atmosphere. The street is lined with traditional Cypriot buildings, many dating back to the Ottoman period. These buildings feature distinctive architectural details, such as wooden balconies, carved stone facades, and ornate metalwork.
Aeschylus Street is a historic street located in the walled city of Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus. The road is named after Aeschylus, a Greek tragedian born in Eleusis, Greece, in the 5th century BCE.
Aeschylus Street is known for its traditional architecture and charming atmosphere. The street is lined with conventional Cypriot buildings, many dating back to the Ottoman period. These buildings feature distinctive architectural details, such as wooden balconies, carved stone facades, and ornate metalwork.
Today, Aeschylus Street is a popular destination for visitors to Nicosia. The street is home to various shops, cafes, and restaurants, as well as several historic landmarks and cultural institutions. Visitors can stroll along the picturesque road, explore its many shops and attractions, and soak up the ambience of this unique and charming corner of the city.
Like many urban areas worldwide, Nicosia has experienced an influx of undocumented or illegal immigrants in recent years. Many of these individuals are refugees or asylum seekers fleeing conflict or persecution in their home countries, while others seek economic opportunities in Cyprus.
The presence of illegal immigrants in Nicosia has created a complex set of social and economic challenges for the city and its residents. Many undocumented immigrants live in poverty and are forced to rely on informal networks and under-the-table work to survive. They may also face discrimination and hostility from some members of the local population.
The Cypriot government has implemented various policies and programs to address the issue of illegal immigration, including efforts to strengthen border security and increase cooperation with other countries in matters of migration and asylum. However, the situation remains a complex and ongoing challenge for Nicosia and other urban areas in Cyprus and worldwide.
Olympiacos Nicosia is a professional football club based in Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus. The club was founded in 1931 and had a long and storied history in Cypriot football.
Olympiacos Nicosia has won several titles and championships, including the Cypriot Cup in 1968 and the Cypriot Second Division championship in 2017. The club has also participated in several European competitions, including the UEFA Cup and the UEFA Champions League.
In addition to its success on the field, Olympiacos Nicosia is known for its passionate fan base and commitment to community service and outreach. The club has some programs and initiatives to promote football and healthy living among young people in Nicosia and beyond.
Today, Olympiacos Nicosia is one of the most successful and well-respected football clubs in Cyprus, with a strong tradition of excellence both on and off the field.
Kakopetria is a picturesque village located in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus. The town is known for its traditional architecture, winding cobbled streets, and stunning natural scenery.
Kakopetria has a rich history that dates back to the Byzantine era, and the village is home to several historic landmarks and cultural attractions. One of the most notable of these is the Church of Agios Nikolaos tis Stegis, which is a UNESCO World Heritage site. This ancient church dates back to the 11th century and is known for its stunning frescoes.
In addition to its cultural attractions, Kakopetria is also a popular destination for outdoor enthusiasts. Beautiful forests and mountains surround the village, and visitors can enjoy various activities, including hiking, mountain biking, and skiing.
Today, Kakopetria is a thriving community with a vibrant local culture and a solid commitment to preserving its heritage and natural beauty. The village is a popular destination for tourists and locals alike, and it offers a unique and authentic glimpse into the rich history and culture of Cyprus.
The Karyotis River is known for its crystal-clear waters and is a popular spot for swimming and fishing. The river is also home to several species of fish, including trout and eels.
In addition to the Karyotis River, there are several other rivers and streams in the area, including the Krios Potamos River and the Setrachos River. These rivers and streams are all fed by the snowmelt and rainfall that occur in the Troodos Mountains, and they provide important water resources for the local community and surrounding areas.
The rivers and streams of Kakopetria are an important part of the natural ecosystem of the region and are valued for their scenic beauty and recreational opportunities. They also play an important role in the cultural and historical heritage of the area, serving as a source of inspiration and nourishment for the people who have lived in the region for centuries.
Kakopetria Waterfall is a beautiful natural attraction located near the village of Kakopetria in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus. The Krios Potamos River feeds the waterfall and drops from a height of approximately 20 meters.
Visitors to Kakopetria can access the waterfall via a short hiking trail that winds through the surrounding forest. The trail is relatively easy and takes 10-15 minutes to complete, making it accessible to visitors of all ages and fitness levels.
Once at the waterfall, visitors can enjoy stunning views of the cascading water and the lush greenery surrounding it. The area is also home to various flora and fauna, including wildflowers, birds, and butterflies.
Kakopetria Waterfall is a popular destination for tourists and locals alike, and it is considered one of the most beautiful natural attractions in Cyprus. Visitors to the area can also explore the nearby villages of Kakopetria and Troodos, which offer a variety of cultural, historical, and recreational attractions.
Kakopetria is situated in the southwest of Nicosia at the foothills of Mount Troodos, specifically on the northern side of the mountain range. It is located about 55 kilometers away from the capital and the second largest city of Cyprus, Limassol. The village is situated at an altitude of 867 meters, making it the highest village in the Salia valley. Its climate is relatively dry and receives an average annual rainfall of around 500 millimeters. The area is known for cultivating fruit trees such as apples, pears, plums, apricots, peaches, and cherries, as well as vegetables like potatoes and tomatoes, and vines with table and wine varieties. Kakopetria is particularly famous for the high quality of its apples. The community has around 1300 permanent residents.
Situated amidst verdant surroundings, Kakopetria is located between the Kariotis and Gorillas rivers, which converge in the village to form the Klarios River. This river meanders through the Solea Valley before emptying into the Gulf of Morphou in Pentaya.
The Karkotis River is a river in Cyprus that flows through the Solea Valley, passing by the village of Kakopetria. The river's name comes from the ancient Greek word "Karkotes," meaning "hunting ground." This name was likely given due to the river's abundant wildlife and its use as a hunting ground in ancient times. The Karkotis River has a length of approximately 25 kilometres and is one of the main tributaries of the Klarios River, which eventually flows into the Gulf of Morphou. The river is fed by several smaller streams and is known for its clear, calm waters, famous for swimming and fishing.
The Karkotis River, located in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus, has a rich history of use for various purposes, including the operation of mills. Historically, the river played a vital role in the economy of the surrounding villages, as its water was used to power numerous mills for grinding grain and producing flour.
In the past, the river's water was channelled through a series of channels, or aqueducts, to the mills located along its banks. The mills were typically powered by water wheels, which were turned by the river's flow. Using the Karkotis River to power mills dates back to the medieval period, when the island was under Frankish rule.
Today, many historic mills along the river have been abandoned or converted to other uses, as modern technology has made traditional milling methods less efficient. However, some of the mills have been preserved as cultural heritage sites and can still be visited today.
The Karkotis River continues to be an essential source of water for the surrounding villages and agriculture, as well as a popular destination for outdoor activities such as hiking and fishing. The river is also home to various plant and animal species, making it a vital ecological resource.
There are three different versions of the origin of the name Kakopetria. The first version suggests that the name combines the words "bad" and "stone", and it was given to the village due to its rocky and challenging-to-climb location in the past. The second version relates to a large stone located near the entrance of the town, known as the Androgynous Stone. According to tradition, newlywed couples used to sit on the rock, but one day it rolled over and crushed a couple. The villagers then named the stone "Kakopetra", which led to the village being called Kakopetria. The third version is based on a legend about a Maratha ruler with three sons named Nikos, Panagiotis, and Petris. Petris was known for being troublesome and unbearable, so his brothers asked their father to send him away. Petris was banished to the other side of the mountain, where he became the area's first settler, which later became Kakopetria. The village was named after Petris and Kakos, the Greek word for "bad." Nikos founded a cheese house and left the village, while Panagiotis founded the town of Kalopanagiotis.
The Village of Kakopetria was mentioned during the Francish times in Cyprus.
The Frankish occupation of Cyprus began in 1192 when King Richard the Lionheart of England sold the island to the Knights Templar, who sold it to Guy de Lusignan, a French nobleman. The Lusignan dynasty, which ruled Cyprus until 1489, significantly changed the island's social, economic, and cultural landscape.
Under the Lusignan rule, Cyprus became a feudal state with a powerful landed aristocracy. The French nobility introduced the concept of chivalry and the code of courtly love and promoted art and literature. The Church was also reorganised under the Latin Rite and brought under the control of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Lusignan period saw the construction of many impressive Gothic-style churches, such as the famous St. Hilarion Castle and the Cathedrals of St. Nicholas and St. Sophia in Nicosia. The Lusignans also established a thriving wine industry and encouraged trade with other Mediterranean powers, making Cyprus a prosperous island.
However, the Lusignan dynasty's rule was not without problems. Various powers, including the Mamluks of Egypt, the Genoese, and the Venetians, repeatedly invaded the island. The Cypriot population also suffered from the tyranny of the landed nobility, which imposed high taxes and forced labour on the peasantry.
In 1489, the last Lusignan king of Cyprus, James II, died without a male heir, and the island was sold to the Republic of Venice. The Venetian period brought new economic and cultural changes to Cyprus and lasted until 1571, when the Ottomans invaded and conquered the island.
The Vateri hiking trail is a great way to experience the natural beauty of Kakopetria and is suitable for hikers of all levels. It can be completed in about two hours, making it a perfect half-day excursion for visitors to the area.
The Karkotis River is known for its trout fishing. The river has brown trout, rainbow trout, and European eel. Fishing is allowed only during the fishing season, which usually starts in mid-March and ends in mid-October. Anyone who wants to fish in the Karkotis River must obtain a fishing license from the Department of Fisheries and Marine Research.
The source of the name "Vateri" for the hiking trail in Kakopetria is unclear. It may come from the Greek word "vatos", which means "stone pavement", as the trail is known for its stone steps and paths. However, this is just speculation, and there may be other explanations for the name.
The silk industry was also an important business in Kakopetria, especially during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The silkworms were bred in the village, and the silk was then spun and woven into fabric. However, during World War II, the British used the silk from Kakopetria and other areas of Cyprus to make parachutes for their troops.
A "dolia" is a large earthenware jar for storing and fermenting wine. They are typically made from terracotta or clay and have been used in various cultures throughout history. In Cyprus, dolia were commonly used for wine storage and production, with some dating back to ancient times. They can vary in size from a few to several thousand litres and are often decorated with various motifs and patterns. While they are no longer widely used for winemaking, dolia can still be found in some traditional wineries and are sometimes used for decorative purposes.
The houses in Kakopetria are topped with sloping tiled roofs, which are supported by wooden beams at their base. Each home is adorned with a wooden balcony, adding another layer of picturesque decoration. The houses are solidly built, using local rocks such as stones from the area's rivers and bricks.
The two-story houses were not only beautiful but also had practical uses. The lower floor was used as a warehouse with large jars for storing wine and other products. Families who owned animals used the lower floor to keep them. The family lived on the upper floor, also known as "anogi" or "makrynari", designed with a specific layout.
A winding, narrow, and stone-paved road passes through the houses of Palia Kakopetria.
As part of the efforts to preserve Old Kakopetria, an underground sewer system was installed, which runs through the main cobbled street of the village.
Each house had a small courtyard, with some featuring wooden columns used for cooking food or heating the "chimney" which is similar to a fireplace.
The traditional way of constructing the houses, and Old Kakopetria in general, is based on traditional architecture. This has resulted in a unique and rare example of "primitive popular architecture".
The old south gate of Kakopetria is located at the lower end of the village and it is the historical entrance to the village. The entrance was constructed during the Medieval period and it was the main gateway for travelers and visitors coming from the southern coastal regions of the island. The entrance consists of a stone archway, which leads to the old town of Kakopetria. At the top of the arch, there is a small room that was used as a guard post to monitor who entered and exited the village. This entrance was also used for defensive purposes during times of war or invasion. Today, the old southern entrance is considered an important monument of the village and attracts many tourists who come to admire its architectural beauty and learn about the history of Kakopetria.
In Kakopetria, as in many other traditional villages of Cyprus, the houses are built around a central courtyard, often with a fountain or a well. These courtyards served as a prominent gathering places for families and were designed to provide shelter from the hot sun during the summer months.
Many rooms and outbuildings, including stables, storerooms, and guesthouses, usually surrounded the courtyards. The rooms were often built with stone walls and wooden ceilings and were decorated with intricate wooden carvings and other traditional ornaments.
The village also has several traditional public spaces, including the village square and the local courts. The courts were used for various purposes, including settling disputes, holding markets, and conducting official business. They were usually located near the centre of the village and were built in a similar style to the houses, with stone walls and wooden roofs.
Overall, the courts and yards in Kakopetria provide a glimpse into the traditional Cypriot way of life, with their simple yet functional design and focus on community and hospitality.
The streets of Kakopetria were given official names in the 1980s. Themistokles Vasiliou Street in Kakopetria is named after Themistokles Vasiliou, a notable figure in the village's history. He was born in Kakopetria in 1882 and was a prominent lawyer and politician. Vasiliou played a significant role in the struggle for the liberation of Cyprus from British colonial rule and was a member of the Cypriot delegation that negotiated Cyprus' independence in 1959. He served as a member of the House of Representatives of Cyprus from 1960 until he died in 1966. Vasiliou was also a philanthropist who contributed significantly to the development of Kakopetria, particularly in education and culture.
Located in the heart of the "Palio Chorio", the church of Metamorphosis tou Sotira (Transfiguration of the Savior) in Kakopetria is a historic temple built in 1520. It served as the community's main church until 1994. It is adorned with 16th and 17th-century hagiographies, including the famous hagiographer Simeon Auxentis, known for his frescoes at the Virgin Mary and Archangel temples in Galata.
Simeon Auxentis was a well-known hagiographer in Cyprus who was active during the 16th and 17th centuries. He is known for his frescoes at several churches in Cyprus, including the Virgin Mary and Archangel churches in Galata, as well as the church of the Metamorphosis tou Sotira in Kakopetria. The use of bright colours, expressive figures, and attention to detail characterises his style. His works are considered some of the finest examples of Byzantine and post-Byzantine monumental paintings in Cyprus.
One of the most well-known fairytales related to Kakopetria is called "The Fairy Bride of Kakopetria". According to the legend, a man named Katsantonis met a beautiful woman in the village who he fell in love with and eventually married. However, on the day of the wedding, the bride disappeared, leaving behind only a note saying that she was a fairy and had to return to her world. Katsantonis was heartbroken and went to a wise older man in the village for advice. The older man told him that to win back his fairy bride, he needed to go to a nearby tree and strike it three times with an axe while saying her name. Katsantonis did as he was told, and to his amazement, his fairy bride appeared before him, now able to stay in the human world forever. The couple lived happily ever after, and the tree where Katsantonis struck his axe three times became known as the "Tree of the Fairy Bride".
A curious moment was witnessed in Kakopetria when the oil truck driver held the gas nozzle with a clamp to prevent it from tipping over and spilling fuel while filling up an SUV. It's a case of "necessity is the mother of invention", indeed.
The Solea Valley is a valley in the Troodos Mountains in the central part of the island of Cyprus. It is also known as the Salia Valley. The valley is named after the nearby village of Solea, which is located in the valley. The valley is surrounded by mountains and is home to a number of small villages. The area is known for its natural beauty, with many hiking trails and scenic drives.
The name "Solia" or "Salia" is derived from the Greek word "Solia", which means "vineyards". This is because the valley is known for its rich vineyards, which produce a variety of grapes for the production of wine.
According to local legend, the Stone of the Couple was responsible for the death of a newlywed couple performing the ceremonial round of the stone. The code, along with the discovery of the temple of a goddess in the area of Aelades, suggests that the worship of Aphrodite was prevalent in Cyprus. The discovery of a conical baetyl, a sacred stone of the goddess, during excavations of her temple at Palepaphos in 1888, which is now displayed at the Nicosia Archaeological Museum, further supports this. Despite the rise of Christianity, many pagan customs continued to be practised by Cypriots, and some are still practised today.
The River Park Restaurant is located in the picturesque area of Kakopetria and offers Mediterranean cuisine. The restaurant has a beautiful interior and a great view of the river. However, we were not satisfied with the quality of the food. Some dishes were undercooked and the taste was not up to par. The service was good and nice. Overall, we cannot recommend this restaurant due to issues with the quality of food.
The Petrolina gas station in Kakopetria does not offer the option to pay by card at the self-service machine, only at the cash register. However, if there is no cashier present, it is not possible to refuel.
The Gerokamina viewpoint can be found at 1470 meters on the southern side of Mount Olympus in the Troodos National Forest Park. It is located 6 kilometres off Platres village, along the Platron-Troodos road. From this viewpoint, visitors can enjoy the stunning views of Kryos River valley and Akrotiri Bay and observe some notable landmarks such as the salt lake of Akrotiri, Cape Gata, Cape Zevgari, the Limassol harbour, and the Kourris dam. The area is situated within the mixed zone of Calabrian and Black pine trees, and as the altitude increases, the Calabrian pine gives way to the dominant Black pine species. Other types of flora that can be spotted in the area are Cyprus cedar, Golden oak, Giant sequoia, Oleander, Thorny gorse, Blackberry, and Rockrose.