After Richard, the Lionheart's departure, Nicosia came under the rule of the Lusignan dynasty, which established their capital in the city. During their reign, Nicosia flourished as a centre of culture, art, and trade, with numerous churches, monasteries, and public buildings constructed. In 1489, the Venetians took control of Nicosia and introduced significant architectural and urban changes, including constructing defensive walls, gates, and public buildings in a Venetian style. The Venetian rule of the city lasted until 1571, when the Ottoman Empire conquered Cyprus, and Nicosia became the capital of the Ottoman province of Cyprus.
Some archaeological evidence from the early time of Lusingan rulers is the ruins of Church A. It was a complex of two small single-aisled chapels surrounded by a cemetery. The northern chapel was built first, probably in the 12th century AD, in the compressed cross-in-square type. The southern chapel was added later, towards the end of the 12th or the beginning of the 13th century. Little is known about the history of Church A due to subsequent interventions to the site. However, there is evidence of later architectural phases, and movable finds that indicate the chapels belong to the architectural tradition of the Middle Byzantine period. The first course of the walls of the southern chapel is preserved, built with rectangular blocks of sandstone, and the lower part of the wall paintings that used to decorate the church is maintained on the interior south wall. Part of the lime plaster floor is also preserved, spread on a foundation of small to medium-sized pebbles, providing insight into the religious and cultural history of Nicosia during the Middle Byzantine period.