In the 20th century, Nicosia, like the rest of Cyprus, experienced significant political and social changes. In 1925, the British colonial government implemented a new constitution that provided for a partially elected Legislative Council and increased the number of Greek Cypriots in the civil service. This move was a broader effort to modernise and liberalise the island's administration.
One of the quarters in Nicosia that was influenced by these changes was the Ayios Antonios neighbourhood located in the southeast corner of the city. It is one of the 24 neighbourhoods within the walls of Nicosia and covers 97 streets. At the last Census in 2011, it had a population of 5,801, an increase from 5,233 in 2001. The neighbourhood was extended in 1923 to include an area outside the walls between Larnaca Road and the Constanza Bastion.
The parish church of Ayios Antonios was established in 1736, but the walls of the church incorporate architectural elements from previous churches. The church is situated on Ayios Antonios Street, about three feet below street level. It has three arched entrances and a tall bell tower with a single aisle inside. The arched porch has a pointed vault, while a similar vault with imposts is the principal feature of the interior. There are also windows at the sides and a gallery over the entrance, along with a delicate canopy similar to the one in the Trypiotis church. The front of the church bears the date 1736, and a colonnade surrounds the irregular courtyard.
Ayios Antonios is home to several other important buildings, including the Ayios Antonios school and the Ayios Antonios municipal market. The school, formally known as "Evgenias and Antoniou Theodotou Primary School," is one of the three oldest primary schools in Nicosia. It has been in its present location since 1926, although the army appropriated the building for war use during 1940-44.