This walking one day tour of old Nuremberg is perfect. The walk begins at Frauentorturm directly opposite the exit of the underpass of the central railway station and runs along Königstrasse with its main churches and original shops. The footpath enters the church of St. Lorenz with its medieval architecture and the works of Adam Kraft - a contemporary of Albrecht Dürer. The path continues to the famous Nassau House through Hans Sachs Square to Holy Spirit Hospital and makes a beautiful loop through Schütt Island, the Pegnitz River, and Church of Katarina leads to the central square of Hauptmarkt and the bells of the Frauenkirche church and leads to Beautiful Fountain, where wishes are usually made. Then the walk passes near Rathausplatz and leads to the St. Sebald - Sebalduskirche gives an excellent lunch at Goldenes Posthorn Restaurant. After lunch, the path leads to the City Museum in Fembo house, Pellerhof, Museum Tucherschloss und Hirsvogelsaal, Imperial courtyard of Kaiserburg. It allows you to enjoy city views from Imperial castle Nürnberg. Further, the footpath will lead to the house of Albrecht Dürer, the home of Pilate, the gates of the Tiergärtnertorturm, and the courtyards of the breweries. We will meet The Toy Museum in Nuremberg, admire the executioner’s bridge, learn the story of the bagpipe, walk through the shopping quarter and end the day at the fountain carousel of family relationships and realize that everything is relative in this world.
Frauentor was the main gate in the southeast of the city wall of Nuremberg. This is one of the four round main towers of Nuremberg, its old name is “Blau Q”. Frauentor in translation means "women's tower" in honor of the church and monastery of the Poor Clariss - Claracloster. This tower replaced the women's gate of the penultimate city wall, which was demolished in 1498 during the construction of the road to Regensburg. Here was the red light district. The first sources indicating the practice of prostitution in women's shelters, comes from 1381. In 1558, Jörg Unger rebuilt the original square tower to form the round tower that stands today.
St. Martha's Church is one of the oldest in the city. During the Reformation period, it was closed, its altar and other religious objects were transferred to the church of St. Lorenz, and the building was used for the performances of the mastersingers. Wagner at the opera The Nuremberg Meistensingers described a story from urban life when a young knight decided to become a mastersinger and win a song contest to marry the daughter of a craftsman because the craftsman wanted his daughter to be married only with the winner of the Meistersinger.
Church of St. Clara was the oldest church in this part of the city. It belonged to the monastery of Clarisse and there was a women's shelter in it. That is why the large round tower at the entrance to the city is called the Women's Tower. After the Reformation came to the city, they wanted to close the church and convention, but they allowed the last nun to live quietly in it and die. Her grave is in the courtyard of the church. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the building was used as a merchant's warehouse and in the middle of the century as an arsenal.
Königsstraße runs from the Frauentor via St Lawrence church to the central marketplace Nuremberg. The biggest department stores are located along this street.
A huge urban barn was built along the Royal Route at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It was the heyday of Nuremberg. At this time, Albrecht Dürer and Adam Kraft created their works. The barn consisted of a six-story attic where grain, salt, and wine were stored. During World War II, bombs destroyed this building. The new building was able to include only a five-floor attic. In the eastern part of the barn, above the entrance, an imperial eagle and coat of arms were installed as a sign that Nuremberg is an imperial city, and this made it rich.
Near the warehouse was one of the city fountains. A fence protects fountains for drinking water, and the water filling system works like a Chinese groove. When the gutter is filled with water, it tilts and empties the water into the tank. It returns to its former state, and then everything repeats.
Rudolf Hussel opened a small bulk goods store in 1949. Three years later, he already had ten confectioneries shops, and after six years, their number increased to one hundred. In 1962, a close friend of Rudolph Herbert Ekloh acquired about 95% of shares to sell them profitably. He sold the shares very successfully, but Rudolf earned nothing and retired. In 2014, a large holding company bought the brand for 50 million euros. The Germans had a rumor that the best chocolate is Hussel chocolate.
The Church of St. Lawrence begins its history in the thirteenth century. Nuremberg consisted of two cities on the opposite banks of the Pegnitz River. In the northern part of the town, which was adjacent to the imperial palace, there was already the famous church of St. Sebald - a local saint - whose relics are stored in the church. The Church of St. Lawrence could not compete with the Church of St. Sebald; therefore, traditions, tales, sculptures, and architectural elements were created, which made the church one of the most beautiful churches in Germany.
The Church of St. Lawrence acquired its own relics by building an altar for the body of St. Diocarus. He is considered the patron saint of the city and the confessor of King Charles the Great. Holiness does not interfere with the fact that the time difference between the life of a saint and the creation of a church is more than two hundred years. St. Rochus from Italy also became a guest in the church of St. Lawrence and took root in it as well. Saint Roch is depicted with a bare thigh and plague ulcers on his leg. The image of this saint was brought to Nuremberg from Italy by noble German merchants. By the way, the same famous family of merchants gave the church a gilded spire of one of the two bell towers at the entrance. The beauty and greatness of the church were created not only by the holiness of the saints.
One of the most memorable and famous images in the church is the casket for offerings - Tabernacle. He was carved from stone by Adam Kraft and his workshop, a contemporary of Albrecht Dürer. Adam portrayed himself and his students, holding on their shoulders a tabernacle in the form of a majestic Gothic tower. The most famous landmark of the church is a sculpture of the Annunciation carved from wood. It weighs about a ton and hangs in the altar. It depicts the archangel Gabriel and the Holy Virgin Mary. This work was paid for by Anton Tucher, the father of one of the wealthiest and most influential families in Nuremberg, with whom we will meet again.
The Church of St. Lawrence organizes concerts of organ music. The entrance to the church requires a donation of two euros.
An ancient residential building in the form of a fortress tower has been impressive since ancient times. It is built of red sandstone. By mistake, this house began to be called the Nissauer Tower by the name of Adolf King of Nassau, who lived in the fifteenth century. Nothing is known about the original owners of the building. However, we know the most famous citizens lived in it at different times. Peter Stromer the municipal leader and noble citizen lived there, around 1422. The brothers Erasmus and Heinrich Schurstab are Nuremberg aristocrats, members of the city council and a merchant family of Europe possed the house. From 1427 the house belonged to the Nuremberg patrician family Ortlieb and then was sold to Haller von Hellerstein the oldest patrician family of Nurnberg. Around 1556, Willibald Imhoff patrician lived in the house and was a collector and admirer of Dürer.
A seated man in a shop window is sharpening pencils. He is dressed as a seventeenth-century artisan of Nuremberg. One of the most famous office supply companies, Staedtler, was born in Nuremberg, and it still has its headquarters there. As early as the seventeenth century, Frederick Staedtler became the exclusive manufacturer of pencils. He owned all the sawmills and the production of leads. The city council demanded to split the paperwork; otherwise, Staedtler will not be allowed to trade in the city. Friedrich had to accept the regulations. Still, already in 1835, his descendant John Sebastian Staedtler founded the company Staedtler, taking the helmet of the war god Mars as an allegory of the struggle for the right to conduct a monopoly business. The logo was finally approved in 1958. In 2010 the new Fimo brand was released - Staedtler polymer clay for modeling.
There are so many "Nutcrackers" in Nuremberg that one might get the impression that this fabulous hero of the Nutcracker Tale was born here. The tale was born in Berlin. Hoffmann Ernst Theodore Amadeus, a storyteller, composer, and artist created it. He respected Mozart's work so much, that he changed his name Wilhelm to Amadeus. A nutcracker doll was born in the town of Seifen, where miners who mined tin carved the nutcrackers from wood and strengthened it with tin. These nutcrackers looked like soldiers and were "top-rated" children's toys. So, why is there so much nutcracker in Nuremberg? Because the plot of the tale is Christmas, and Nuremberg is the most festive city in Germany during Christmas time and the biggest Christmas market in Europe is held here.
There is a special ledge on the museum bridge from where the most picturesque view of the shelter of the Holy Spirit opens. This shelter and hospital began their history in the Middle Ages. The bombing of World War II completely destroyed them and modern buildings are an accurate restoration.
Christkindlfest uses Hans Sachs Square's free space to create a small Christmas market for children. Among the carousels and sweets stands the monument of Hans Sachs. He was the most famous meistersinger. Hans Sachs created over six thousand books and twelve new tunes in the art of the mastersingers, and that is why Nuremberg is often called Meistersingerburg. But he earned money as a shoemaker - the craft that he learned from his father. The colorful image of Hans is easily recognized in "Nuremberg Mastersingers" by Richard Wagner. Sachs' poetry admired Goethe.
The great Nuremberg synagogue stood once in this place. It was destroyed in 1938 before the events of Kristallnacht when terrible pogroms took place throughout Germany, during which thousands of synagogues were burned. Before the construction of this synagogue, the stone was laid in the foundation. Jews preserved this stone from the ancient synagogue, turned into a church after they were expelled from the center of the town in the thirteen century. Near the synagogue, the monument is the Leo Katzenberger embankment. Leo was a Jew, and his wife was German. Leo was convicted and sentenced to death for having been married to a German woman. A small tablet in this place in German says: In memory of the victims of National Socialism 1933 - 1945. The world is threatened not by evil people, but by those who allow evil.
The Holy Spirit Hospital in the imperial city of Nuremberg was the largest city institution for caring for the elderly and the sick. Conrad Gross donated this inspiring building standing over the Pegniz River. This building is also a repository of imperial jewels, The Crown of the Holy Roman Empire stored the imperial treasures in this building from 1424 to 1796.
Spitalbruck or Hospital Bridge was wooden. A new stone bridge replaced it during the reconstruction of all bridges in Nuremberg and was connected directly to Hans Sachs Square. A new bridge was built a little east from the original one to suit the growing traffic in the city in the second half of the nineteenth century.
You can see the tall square tower above the Bar Celona Bar - one of the most popular bars of the modern restaurant chain of Nuremberg. This tower was once part of the town wall and later became a prison. Hans Stromer (called Bratwurst-Stromer), alderman, city judge and member of the noble family, Stromer von Reichenbach, was sentenced for life in this tower in 1559 for treason and dirty talk. As a nobleman, he had the right to get two fried sausages every day at the expense of the city. He was served food every day for thirty-three years until he committed suicide.
A beautiful autumn park along the banks of the Pegnitz River invites you to take a walk. The winter sun rays caress the mossy stone fences. Swans and ducks clean their feathers in the water, and you want to sit comfortably and wrap yourself in a warm scarf.
The island of Schütt is the largest river island of the Pegnitz in Nuremberg. The island's length is only 630 meters and has a maximum width of 120 meters. The Pegnitz River deposited sandbars, which were supplemented by artificial fulfilling. The first mentions the island date back to 1376.
The area of the island in the middle of the city was undeveloped for a long time. Some kinds of entertainment events held on the island. For example, the Christkindlesmarkt from 1898 to 1917 was held on the island. At the turn of the century, the non-official public bath in the middle of the island offered a swimming pool for bathing enthusiasts. In 1909, a flood of the century flooded large parts of the island and destroyed some bridges.
You can admire the views of the river endlessly. A funny thing is standing next to the pedestrian bridge. I don’t know by whom and when the tradition to hang locks on bridges fences began, but this misfortune attacked the most beautiful bridges in Europe. Nuremberg approached the issue with German thoroughness. A municipality of the city announced a competition on how to prevent hanging locks on the bridges, and an elegant solution was soon presented. A large metal structure in the form of a vast heart is designed for hanging locks of love in it — students of the vocational school designed this construction. They installed the first lock of love. They believe that soon the metal heart will be covered with locks of love, and thus, the bridge will be clean and lovers satisfied.
Church of st. Katarina (Katharinenkirche) in Nuremberg was a three-nave basilica, which was consecrated in 1297 as a church of the Dominican convent, founded at the end of the XIII century. In the XVI century, as a result of the reformation, the monastery was closed after the death of the last abbess in 1596.
In 1614 the church was restored, and they were going to use it for religious services. But from 1620 until the end of the 18th century, the church was regularly used for singing competitions of the Nuremberg Mastersingers. Then the building was empty for a long time and was reopened during the 1848 revolution for political meetings.
Since that time, the church has symbolized the resurgent German spirit and has become a symbol of the Nazi regime. It is noteworthy that this was not restored from all the buildings of the city, and next to it was build a new concert hall, which carries a different meaning.
We again returned to the prison tower. Christian Ludwig Kaulitz died шт 1744 after 23 years of being imprisoned in a tower. He was convicted by the city council for copying manuscripts. Ludwig is famous for his color picture with a view of the opposite female debt tower (does not exist anymore) and Heilig-Geist-Hospital with a hay bridge.
A hay bridge connected two towers. One of the two towers is called the guilt tower and still stands - remember the story of a nobleman with two grilled sausages? The bridge was also named the debt tower bridge. Originally It was built from wood. In 1488, a monument in the form of the column was erected on a hay bridge in memory of Hans Held, who drowned in Pegnitz. Together with the hospital bridge, he connected the Hans-Sachs square with the city of Lorenzkirche.
The most remarkable thing in the church of St. Mary is the clock. At the beginning of the 16th century, City council initiated the construction of the watch in memory of the adoption of the Golden Deed in 1356. The Royal Deed recognized the complete sovereignty of the dukes in their lands. Figures of great lords show the performance on the window of the watch. Every noon the bell held by herald figure notifies the show. Herald appears in the open door on the turret. Behind him trumpeter, flutist and drummer perform. In the center, the emperor’s figure greets with a scepter seven bowing dukes.
Frauenkirche, one of the main churches of Nuremberg, stands on the site of a synagogue destroyed in 1350. It uses the walls of an ancient structure in its architecture. The church was built on the initiative of Emperor Charles in the period from 1352 to 1362. Adam Kraft, whom we met in Lorenzkirch, made a pediment with the Maßwerktabernakel for the so-called "Männleinlaufen" in 1509. In the choral hall, in memory of the pogrom against the Jews in 1349, the Star of David is depicted.
The church organizes organ concerts. Today's organ dates back to the instrument, which was built in 1957 by Johannes Clyce of Bonn. He had electric charges and was hung like a nest of swallows on the sidewall of the aisle. In the mid-1980s, the instrument was rebuilt and expanded and was now placed on the church floor.
Hauptmarkt square is the main square of the city; here are the famous Nuremberg Christmas markets. During the Third Reich, Hauptmarkt was renamed Hitler Square, and after World War II, the square was called Iron Mike in honor of American soldiers. But then the Germans quietly returned the original name.
The most fun and noisy holiday in Nuremberg is the Christmas holiday. It so happened that the largest and most beautiful fair in all of Germany and Europe takes place on this square, which in the thirteenth century was a swamp on which Jews settled. When the Jews made a residential quarter out of the swamp, germans drove them out, some were killed, on the synagogue was built a church, and on the site of the houses, they created a commercial area. The Germans did not work out with the Jews. No way.
Fair stands stand on the back of the Beautiful Fountain. Many believe that it is on the reverse side of the fence that there is that real ring that brings good luck.
A ring is mounted in the fence of the fountain. According to local tradition, the one who twists the ring can make a wish, and it will come true. The ring is made of copper, and on the opposite side of the fence, there is an iron ring. There is a tradition according to which the iron ring is the real ring, and the copper ring is a fake made for tourists. A ring appeared in the fence thanks to the efforts of one young man who was in love with the daughter of his master blacksmith. The boy so much wanted to marry the girl that he wanted to impress his master to do the impossible: solder the ring into the existing fence. He succeeded, but the master remained deaf and blind to the efforts of the young man. The young people had never been married and the boy left the Nurnberg.
The town hall was severely damaged during World War II. In its place, a new city hall was built. In the historical building, the inner chamber was painted by Dürer. There were several mural projects in the new building, but not one of them was ever implemented.
A small courtyard surrounded by the old and the new town hall buildings includes a column with the names of twin-towns of Nuremberg. At a time of ChristKindlmarkt, the fair of twin-towns usually is taking place in this courtyard. In addition to familiar drinks and food from Scotland, Scandinavia, the Balkans, and Turkey, there were two unusual stands. One of Nablus is a city on the territory of the Palestinian Authority, and the other of Hadera is a city from Israel.
The products sold are manufactured in cities. Representatives speak the language of cities. Often they are dressed in national clothes, although this is not necessary. Nearby stood guys from Kharkiv and sold knitted dolls.
An exciting scene at the stand of the city of Krakow attracted my attention. The Poles have a modern belief that a wooden figurine of a Jew with money in his hands will save from poverty and help to get rich. Two Germans were actively choosing a wooden figurine of a Jew, and the Polish saleswoman recommended: Take this Jew, he has a big nose - this is better. The Poles are selling Jews to the Germans again. For sure, anti-Semitism does not need Jews.
The church of St. Sebald and the structure of the old town hall surround the small square. This square is Town Hall square. The high Gothic arches of the church stand out beautifully against the blue sunny winter sky. You can see a figure of a big animal bunched with horns on its head above the entrance to the city hall. The animal with horns is one of four mysterious animals mentioned in the book of the prophet Daniel. Another three mythological animals were also depicted on the portals of the entrance to the town hall. This is a lion with eagle wings, a leopard with four wings and four heads and a bear.
The prophet Daniel mentions four mythical animals as an allegory to the four kingdoms. Four great empires in the history of humankind will arise and disappear before the kingdom of God comes. The building of the town hall was built in the Italian style, and the eagles and imperial symbols will not allow anyone to make a mistake or forget that we are talking about the imperial city of Nuremberg and the actual capital of the Holy Roman Empire. The kingdoms from the book of Daniel are great empires, including the Holy Roman Empire. Empire is the vision of German national self-identification, and this is the expression of the strengths and justice of the German nation. In the cellars of the town hall, a medieval museum organized. The dungeons create medieval charm, mystery, and all those cute things that can get paid by grateful tourists.
In this place on the outer wall of the apse of the church of St. Sebald is one of the most exciting works of Adam Kraft. We are familiar with Adam Craft. His famous tabernacle is located in the church of St. Lorenz, and in the church of St. Mary, he built the western part. Adam Kraft was a contemporary of Albrecht Dürer. Famous citizens ordered from Kraft some of the most exciting and beautiful works. The burial places of two such citizens are decorated with the Kraft triptych depicting the Way of the Cross. An iron fence closes the triptych. In the center rises the iron pyramid, which was used as a lamp.
The tradition of grilled sausages dates back to the fourteenth century. One of the historical places where the tradition of grilled sausages began is the square near the church of St. Sebald. The church workers were grilling the sausages and delivering them to the believers, so the sausages became a local brand. To this day, Nuremberg sausages are an urban label. The smell of grilled sausages fills the entire city, and if you raise your head, you can see how the smoke rises along the pink stones of the largest and most magnificent temple in the city. This spectacle was probably observed hundreds of years ago.
Church of St. Sebald can be considered the main cathedral of Nuremberg. The church is in proximity to the town hall, and the main street leading to the castle and the possession of the relics of St. Sebald made the church most important in the city. In ancient times, the Cathedral of St. Peter stood in this place. Still, the cult of St. Sebald was so popular that the name of the church was changed, the relics of the saint became a sanctuary and the city authorities achieved its canonization. The cathedral got its modern look already in the fourteenth century.
Legend says that in the eleventh century, Sebald lived in the little village Popperoit near Nuremberg, and his piety and true faith allowed miracles to happen. Another tradition is that he was a missionary in Franconia. There are even those who talk about the beautiful fate of Sebald as a descendant of the Danish kings, who refused to marry a French princess and devoted himself to serving God.
Henry Trausdorf built the first Organ in the church in the fifteenth century, and Peter Wisher and sons made the bronze casket for the relics of the saint and the patron of the city.
The most important subject of the church is the tomb of the patron saint of Sebaldus. The bones of the saint were kept in the silver sanctuary in Nuremberg. At the end of the 15th century, they decided to make a bronze casket for the protection and artistic strengthening of the shrine. The external structure of the tomb was cast between 1508 and 1519. On the wall of the eastern choir is the epitaph of Tucher. On the middle panel of the epitaph, Mary sits on the throne with the baby Jesus between St. Catherine and St. Barbara. Five Renaissance angels appear in the foreground in the style of Italian painting. Only recently, it was noticed that the paint “Blessing Christ” in the Eastern Choir is a copy of “Blessing Christ Albrecht Dürer.” The real picture is currently in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The church of St. Sebald is bright, tall, as if airy. It has a good aura and cannot believe that it stood in ruins after the bombing during World War II. It is noteworthy that in the middle of the ruins of the temple, only a bronze box with the relics of St. Sebald, the patron saint of the city, stood unbroken.
Opposite the church is a building used for public and administrative needs. In this building, church workers handed out food and managed the church household. Horlain has been perfectly preserved in this house. Some of these wooden, box-shaped, or cabinet-shaped ledges look “glued,” while other stone ornaments decorated with ornaments are the splendor of the whole house. Horlain is an extraordinary architectural element inherent in Nuremberg. Before World War II, the city had about 450 such structures. Today 370 are restored.
In front of the church of St. Sebald, a plate is mounted in the pavement. It has the following inscription: The Moritz chapel, with a bell that announced sausage delivery stood here from 1313 until it was destroyed during the war in 1944. Its reconstruction is intended for future generations.
Goldenes Posthorn is the oldest wine cellar in Germany. It has been uninterrupted in service since 1498. Albrecht Dürer and Hans Sachs dined here. It has been visited for centuries by kings, artists, and scholars from around the world. Richard Wagner wrote part of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg in Goldenes Posthorn. The first document that mentions the purchase of the Goldenes Posthorn is dated Monday after All Saints Day in 1498. Since this is a certificate of sale, it becomes clear that the year of foundation was even earlier. In 1945, the Goldenes Posthorn was destroyed by bombs, but since 1960 the house is again in a historical place and serves Franconian cuisine. The original playing card of Hans Sachs from 1560 is stored here. Albrecht Durer’s drinking glass can still be seen today in Goldenes Posthorn. To understand that Franconian cuisine is not just about grilled sausages, it’s worth trying a Franconian Brotzeitbrett for several people with smoked Nuremberg sausages, branded sausage with onions, Aalfelder farm ham, boiled egg, radish, and village bread and butter. Draft beer is a good fit for this portion: Tucher Übersee Export Hell is strong. Or Tucher Dark Beer - branded Franconian beer as well as Tucher Echt Nürnberger Kellerbier, which calmly infuses and gains taste. In winter, having come to the restaurant from the cold outside, you can start the meal with Franconian potato soup or liver dumplings soup or a transparent beef broth with homemade liver dumplings and rustic homemade bread and butter. Bon appetite!
We return to the main street of the city, which rises to the royal palace. And up comes the oldest street in the town - the road of artisans.
Fembohaus is the only building in Nuremberg that survived the Second World War without destruction. Fembohaus was built in the years 1591-1596 for the Dutch merchant Philip van Eyrl. The new home became a family base for Philip van Eyrl and his descendants and was the founding place of his trading company. His great-granddaughter, Maria Sabine Pellerin, married in 1668 the nobleman Christoph Jacob Behaim. Behaim had a large baroque ceiling from Italian stucco on the second floor, designed by Carlo Moretti Brentano. In the ballroom, on the third floor, there were ceiling paintings based on Ovid's metamorphoses. In 1735, the prestigious house was bought by Johann Michael Franz and Johann Georg Ebersberger, who inherited the map printing company from Johann Christoph Homan in 1730, at that time, the most known map printing company in Germany. In 1876, the building was sold in auction to David Zwick, a tobacco producer in Nuremberg. The house was put up for sale after Christophe Melchior Fembo, the last of the family of cartographers and printers died.
In 1928, the city of Nuremberg bought a house and used it as an office building. After World War II in 1953, Fembohaus was opened as a city museum.
Late autumn in Nuremberg is charming. Only a few steps from the bustle of Christmas markets, you can be enveloped by silence and enchanting sadness of yellowed leaves. Walking through the streets does not fill you with pleasure, like walking in small courtyards. After all, the truth is in the hidden.
St. Aegidius Square is named after the Church of St. Aegidius, which was built as a monastery church in the sixteenth century. Since the Reformation overtook the city, the Order of St. Aegis of Ravensbrook was dissolved, and with it, the church. By the way, this is the only baroque church in Nuremberg. The mention of St. Aegis in Nuremberg underlines the Frankish history of these places. The homeland of Aegis is Provence. There he lived on the banks of the Rhone and Gard and then became a hermit in the forest. The deer was his only friend and gave him milk.
The fate of this extraordinaire house is inextricably linked with the fate of a unique person who quickly became rich but tried to become happy for a very long time. Martin Peller studied in Venice with the Nuremberg merchant Karl Unterholzer. When Carl went bankrupt in 1580, Bartholomew Viatis bought his debts from Venetian merchants. He "acquired" with the obligations Martin Peller. Since 1581, Peller worked as a sales clerk for Viatis, and in 1588 he became consul at Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Two years later, in 1590, he married the daughter of his employer, Maria Viatis. Already in 1585, Emperor Rudolph II proclaimed Martin Peller, a peer. Founded in 1591, the Viatis Peller Society was involved in barter trade, credit and exchange transactions, and arms trading. In 1596, Peller received Nuremberg citizenship. Despite the high economic successes, Martin Peller was unable to gain political influence in Nuremberg. Although he had been on good terms with the “Great Council” since 1597, adoption in the politically decisive “Inner Council” remained impossible.
Martin Peller’s wealth increased over the years so much that by 1600 he was able to begin construction of a luxurious mansion in the elite Nuremberg Egidienberg district, where the long-standing patrician families Imhoff, Beheim, and Ebner lived. Neighbors regarded the development of the Pellerhaus as a presumptuous attempt to establish a presence near the aristocratic families. In 1600, Martin Peller acquired the estate of the Roland family on Egidienberg (then Dillinghof) in the form of a simple sandstone home for 6,290 guilders. At this time, Peller lived with his family in his father-in-law’s house on the current museum bridge (at that time: Barfüßerbrücke). In 1602, the house of Roland was demolished and the new construction has begun. The primary builder was Jacob Wolff, and the roof design dates back to Peter Karl; both were responsible for the construction of the meat bridge. The construction phase was characterized by conflicts with the Nuremberg Council and neighbors Wilhelm Imhof and Elias Ebner. Peller was charged with violating the Nurembergasnos building code by demolishing a previous building. Another problem was caused by excavations, where neighbors feared for the stability of their homes. This situation led to the payment of compensation of 1000 guilders to Wilhelm Imhof. The conflict with Elias Ebner was settled by the fact that father-in-law Viatis bought all his property (Black Pellerhouse). The patrician city council threatened Peller even with the forced demolition of the house.
Despite the completion of the house, Martin and Maria Peller continued to live in the house of Bartholomew Viatis in Barfüsserbrück. Only after the death of Viatis in 1625, the Peller family moved to the house on Egidienberg, where Martin Peller died four years later.
The equestrian statue of William the first has an unusual fate. It was created as a challenge to the Bavarian haughty attitude towards the former imperial city. Nuremberg came under the rule of Bavaria only in the nineteenth century. This statue survived the Second World War. The Nazis wanted to melt it into bullets, but for an unknown reason, this did not happen. The figure was not removed to the treasure or wrapped in sandbags during the bombing — the traces of bullets on a horse date back to 1945 when gangs clashed in the city.
Conrad Tucher founded his trading company in 1326. He was known for strong trade relations in the north and the south of Europe. In the seventeenth century, the family had its sales offices in Venice, Geneva, Lyon, and Antwerp. In the nineteenth century, they expanded the acquired imperial brewery and sold beer under the Tucher brand in Africa and China.
The family mansion was built between 1533 and 1544 during the construction boom in this elite part of the city. The estate was planned in the style of the French Renaissance. The building was severely damaged by the bombing in 1945 and was restored only in the late sixties of the last century. It houses a museum of old patrician clans of Nuremberg.
A separate part of the mansion, the Horsvogel saal, was restored in the year 2000. It is used as a hall for celebrations and concerts. In the original room, the ceiling was painted by George Pench, a student of Albrecht Durer.
Parallel streets with half-timbered houses were built at the end of the fifteenth century. Since there are seven streets, the whole quarter is called seven lines. The quarter was designed to create the settlement of weavers from Augsburg and Ulm. It was the first development of the textile industry in Nurnberg.
A loom was installed in each home, and each house had a living room and a kitchen. This project was the first example of social housing. Weavers wove a cloth called Barchent. It is a light, dense blended fabric with a linen base and a cotton weft that stains well. Historic half-timbered houses have not been preserved. The quarter was destroyed by bombing during World War II.
The Nuremberg bunker and the underground system of tunnels are beneath us. This underground system extends from the school in the square to the imperial castle. Digging cellars in the sandy cliff go back in medieval times. During the reequipment of basements in the nineteenth century, breweries were housed in them. The vaults were partially used for tissue storage. During the war, a bomb shelter and a storehouse of imperial jewels were organized here. Here, the citizens of Nurenberg city experienced the most massive bombardment in February 1945.
The imperial city of Nuremberg built the Lugislendl tower to observe what is happening in the castle of the counts. The hatred and the struggle for power in the town between the local dukes and the emperor was extreme. According to another tradition, the Civil Tower is an observation point to identify approaching enemies at an early stage. The name “Luginsland” supports each of these views.
The square tower was part of the urban fortification. The irreconcilable struggle between the city nobility and the emperor’s power led to the destruction of the castle of the dukes. The tower has been abandoned for a long time, but now the parish of Our Lady in the main market is watching over it. Usually, the tower is closed, but since 2014 it is open one evening a month under the motto “Just Pray.”
At the very beginning of the city’s history, a duke castle stood at this place. When duke Conrad Raab died in 1191, he left no heirs. Through son-in-law, the manor passed to the Tzollern dynasty, which constituted a serious rival to other German clans in their claims to the crown of the Holy Roman Empire. The imperial family and the city nobility, who received the status of a free city, united in an attempt to squeeze the princes out of the town. However, the Tzollerens did not give up even after they moved their residence to Kadolzburg. But Nuremberg bourgeois nevertheless found the opportunity under the guise of the Bavarian war to capture the castle and burn it to the ground.
At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Tzollerns agreed to sell the castle ruins to the city in exchange for keeping the title of rulers of Nuremberg. Some of the destroyed buildings were included in the new imperial castle, and some were left outside. A breathtaking view of the city opens from here, and the imperial palace begins behind the gates with a round tower.
The round tower was built in the thirteenth century and was used as a watchtower. The tower guarded the city castle, and after it burned down, she began to guard the main entrance to the imperial palace. An interesting fact is that the imperial castle was inhabited when only the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire came to the city.
The castle consists of two parts. The Imperial chambers and the female wing create the Imperial courtyard and the yard with a round tower, a large well, and outbuildings belong to the outer courtyard. Along the street, descending into the city were craft workshops.
The shape of the castle landscape completely repeats the relief of the rock on which it was built. In order to reach the groundwater, a 47-meter-deep well was dug in the rock. This well is one of the oldest wells in the city and the most older well on the castle hill. A small half-timbered house is built above it. Nuremberg Castle was the favorite castle of many emperors. The castle hosted the Reichstag, Imperial Congresses, King Frederick I Barbarossa celebrated his wedding in the castle. Beginning in 1356, after the implementation of the law on the rights of dukes to their lands, each new emperor was holding his first meeting with nobleman families in the Nuremberg castle. Since 1436, imperial regalia was kept in the Nuremberg fortress. Three emblems are located above the entrance to the imperial court. There are three coats of arms above access to the imperial courtyard. These are the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire, the coat of arms of Franconia, and the coat of arms of Nuremberg.
A lime tree grows in the middle of the imperial court. An ancient legend says that Kunigunde - the wife of Emperor Henry II, planted this tree in the tenth century. On the second floor of the castle, there were female chambers, and on the first floor, the imperial hall. It hosts an exhibition of regalia of emperors of the Holy Roman Empire.
Oddly enough, there was no capital In the Holy Roman Empire. The network of small road fortress called the Pfalz covered the entire Reich. They situated at a distance of about one day's hike. The emperors were in constant ride, stopping in well-protected fortresses only for a short time. The Reformation came to Nuremberg in 1541 and, the alienation of the Catholic Empire and the evangelical city began. After the Thirty Years War, the Imperial Congresses were finally moved to Regensburg. But the Reformation opened the town to free people. Maria Sibilla Merian, a naturalist artist, lived in the town at the turn of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Here in the former imperial gardens, he found a quiet corner for himself, where he researched plants and insects.
The bell tower of the church of St. Lorenz was visible in the distance against the background of a pre-sunset sky.
Nuremberg fortress and the imperial castle stand on the rock, which formed in the bowels of the Earth during the Triassic period, which preceded the Jurassic period. Then the dinosaurs only began to appear, Europe was connected to America, and sometimes rivers flowed in the desert valley, causing sand and stones sediments. This sand and stones created a pink-colored rock from which the whole city of Nuremberg is built.
The street passes at the foot of the castle and leads to the city.
We go down to that part of the city where the historical appearance of Nuremberg is restored. The hill we are standing on is called the Olive Mountain, by analogy with the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.
To our right, a large and beautiful half-timbered house is called the house of Pilate, and in the distance, a three-story house with a stone ground floor and a half-timbered superstructure is the house of Albrecht Dürer.
Dürer painted his famous hare in 1502. His ardent admirer and philanthropist, Willibald Imhoff, immediately purchased the painting, which became the hallmark of Nuremberg, and its reproduction was hung in almost every respected Nuremberg house. Respectable citizens were very surprised when in the morning of one day in 2014, they saw this monster in the square in front of the house of their beloved artist. With a stunning eye, a colossal hare burst out of a wooden cage, twisting his ear and prop his stomach with nails. Bunnies fell out of his belly, and the whole clumsy carcass crushed a man. But soon, the passions subsided. The real hare has long moved to Vienna to the Albertina Museum. Near the insane head of a modern monster stays a small reproduction of a noble predecessor. It is not the fact that the contemporary artist wanted to denigrate the work of the master. And we are only talking about the fact that we look at an abomination, but we refuse to see the causes that give rise to it. We watch the monster, but do not want to see the cage and the nails that made it, we defend the harmless animal as long as it is beautiful and ask to take it off when it is disgusting. So there is something to think about it.
The House of Pilate has nothing to do with Pontius Pilate, except for the fact that in medieval Nuremberg, the way of the cross began here. There are two traditions of the way of the cross in the city. One path left beyond the walls of the town, and the other one passed through the streets to the church of St. Sebald. Nevertheless, both ways began with the first stop - the stop of the condemnation of Pontius Pilate. The knight armor master lived in the house. Evidence of this is the knight in armor, is defeating the dragon on the corner of the house.
The Tiergärtnertor is the gateway and part of the city wall. The name of the gate derives from the former hunting grounds in the adjacent moat. Through this gate, the road passes to Erlangen, Bamberg, Thuringia, and Saxony.
The tower dates back to the 13-the century. But two the upper floors of it built at the beginning of the 16th century. The original gate was bricked, the new entrance leads outside through the cranked passage beneath the city wall.
This moat can tell a lot about the city. Here the road goes west to the satellite Nuremberg, the city of Fürth. It is as ancient as Nuremberg. Today, subway cars ride between them, and in antiquity, there were wild forests. It was precisely the rock enjoying the attention of the German rulers. After all, this is a strategically important point in the whole neighborhood. By the way, the rocky cliff is the name given to the city of Nuremberg: Nour Berg.
Yard Altstadt refers to a large brewery, which creates its beer relatively recently. Nevertheless, beer has already managed to win the love of connoisseurs. On the second floor, there is a beautiful public toilet. Historic rock-cut passages in Nuremberg are several tunnels and cellars. They date back to the 14th Century, cut in sandstone out of the castle rock. The stone cellars were mainly used for storing beer and today their space estimated for more than 25 000 square meters. Most of the rock-cut tunnels served as a water supply in the Middle Ages and at the beginning of modern times. In addition, during the Second World War, rescue and connecting tunnels were built.
A big red six-pointed star on one of the houses in this courtyard immediately prompts thoughts of Jews and is associated with the star of David. However, to the surprise of tourists, this six-pointed star is not connected with the Jews. Nuremberg had stringent brewing laws. The city authorities kept accurate records of the quality and quantity of beer produced in the city. Each brewer had to have a particular sign and pay taxes. The six-pointed star was a symbol of the brewers. The red star was a symbol of dark beer.
Lazarus Spengler lived in the house that stood on this site before the war. He was born and raised in Nuremberg, expressed the ideas of humanism, and was a great champion of Luther. Lazarus was friends with Albert Dürer and argued irreconcilably with Willibald Pickheimer. These forebears constituted the intellectual elite of Nuremberg at the beginning of the sixteenth century.
Michael Hollerzeder operates the Dürer-styled restaurant in Nuremberg. Franconian cuisine and theatrical appearances of historical figures are the hallmarks of this restaurant. During the Christmas holidays, the whole city usually prepares to welcome a crowd of tourists, but this restaurant closes. It seems like in purpose not to turn a meal into gluttony. The restaurant was closed. https://albrechtduererstube.wixsite.com/meinewebsite
The bronze statue of Albrecht Dürer was designed by the sculptor Rauch, who is famous for many works. Among his works is a monument to Emanuel Kant in Konigsberg, an equestrian statue of Frederick the Great in Berlin, a Goethe monument, and monuments to Russian tsars and members of the royal family.
Having descended from the square at the monument of Albrecht Dürer where there was a dairy market, we are in the square in front of the church of St. Sebald, and the street of the wine market goes west.
On the occasion of the opening of the museum in 1971, a fountain designed by Nuremberg artist Michael Matthias Prechtl was installed in front of it. A tube with a brightly painted and playfully ceramic figure rises from a washed concrete sink. Temporal exhibits extend from antiques to the present. The emphasis is on the development of toys over the past 200 years. Here, first of all, the unique role of Nuremberg as a world toy city in the era of industrialization is shown.
Winter sunset is beautiful. A sky red as a glow contrasts so brightly with a white-red half-timbered house.
Residents of Nuremberg in post-Napoleonic Bavaria felt alien, lost their imperial self-esteem and sovereignty. The monument of Durer created by the Crown Prince of Bavaria did not abolish disappointment. Residents of the city themselves created a fountain with the faces of Dürer and Pirckheimer, two of their most respected thinkers. These two recognized persons were Protestants and humanistic freethinkers, the style of the monument is largely based on the Prussian state architecture, defying the Catholic kingdom of Bavaria. The fountain should consciously resemble the former significance of the Free Imperial City as a European center of humanism and should be perceived against this background as an expression of self-confidence of enlightened citizens.
This bridge is the oldest stone bridge in Nuremberg. It was built in the fourteenth century and renamed Maximilian’s honor of the ruler of Bavaria in the mid-nineteenth century. Some of the most stunning photos of the city can be taken from this bridge.
To the east, the Maximillian Bridge overlooks Henkersteg. The tower, which was the former apartment of the imperial city executioner, named the Henker tower. This name gave the name to the bridge. To the west, you can see the Kettensteg, which is regarded as the oldest surviving iron chain bridge in continental Europe.
The fountain on the Unschlittplatz square was designed by the Nuremberg artist Friedrich Wanderer, who developed it based on a wooden model, created in the first half of the 16th century and located in the German National Museum since 1880. It is not clear what Nurenberg has with the legend of the drunk and lazy bagpiper, who allegedly appeared in Nuremberg during the plague in 1437. The bagpiper was lying drunk in a ditch when a wagon with corpses past to a cemetery. The bagpiper's body was also picked up. But he soon woke up and in horror, he pressed his bagpipe, and she made a sound. The bagpiper was identified and taken home. So he escaped the death, and the plague soon receded. In the middle of the 16th century, new fountains with the same plot were created in Bern and Basel.
The monument to Peter Heinlein, inventor of the Nuremberg Egg, is located on Hefnersplatz Square. Nuremberg egg is the first portable watch in the world. The case of this watch was made of gilded brass and had the shape of an egg, therefore it is called “Nuremberg Egg”. The clock could show the time without winding for almost forty hours, they had only one hand - the hour hand. Peter Henlein was born in Nuremberg and was a specialist in clocks and locks. He is awarded a plaque in the Walhalla memorial, located in Bavaria.
This part of the city was built up during the reign of the Raabs - a noble family who were castellans in the castle complex. The water supply channel of this part of the city passed under the Carolinenstrasse. Today it houses the pedestrian zone and the main shopping streets of Nuremberg: Breiten-Gass, Koenigstrasse, and Karolinenstrasse.
The consequences of Black Friday are truly incomprehensible. The Germans have always been famous for their order and discipline. However, the effects of Black Friday are not even amenable to German order. These are just rough times.
Königstrasse street goes to the Women's Gate and leads to the Breité Gasset shopping street, which is parallel to Karolinenstrasse. On this street, we will return.
Hans Sachs-Brunnen is a primary architectural fountain in Nuremberg. It is located right at the intersection of the streets of the pedestrian zone. This fountain is also known as Ehekarussell or Ehebrunnen. We are familiar with the oeuvre of Hans Sachs, thanks to the square in his honor in the city. Jorgen Weber - the sculptor of "The Ship of Fools" designed this fountain. By the way, this work was the first and caused much more controversy than the Fools Ship presented four years later in 1988. The storyline of figures at the fountain is based on a poem by Hans Sachs, "Das bittersweet eh' lich Leben," written for the poet's wife. Six groups of figures show the ups and downs of family life from sweety falling in love until bitter quarrels. Hans Sachs is also featured on a pedestal.
Scene "Love": A beautiful woman stands together with a young musician on the seashell, and next to them is a jumping goat - a symbol of life and fertility.
Scene "Lust." Young spouses bask on a swan bed - a symbol of love and fidelity.
Scene "Idyll." A caring mother feeds children with apples on a bed in the form of a pelican - a symbol of motherhood.
Scene "Routine." The couple remained alone: the exhausted, but dreaming husband and domineering wife eats a piece of cake.
Scene "Apogee." Husband and wife are tired of quarrels, but can not live one without another.
Scene "Final." A colossal dragon raises a couple of skeletons from the depths of Hell. The couple has already died, but still together in the next world.
Further, in a circle of the fountain, you can see again the young woman crawling out of the water, a goat as a symbol of life, and you understand that the carousel of life whirls further.