The Syrian-African Rift, a significant geological event, played a pivotal role in shaping the geological development of the region, including the Judean Desert. The rift, which extends over 6000 km from Syria in the north to Tanzania in Africa, formed primarily during the Neogene period about 25 million years ago and remains active today. Its creation and continual evolution are explained by plate tectonics theory, according to which the Earth's outer layer is composed of giant rock plates constantly moving slowly. In our region, the Arabian Peninsula plate moves north and slightly east relative to the Sinai-Israel plate, the horizontal shearing and opening movements creating the rift where the deep canyons of the Judean Desert flow into. Today, the eastern side of the split is about 100 km north relative to its corresponding point on the rift's western side. Movements along the separation cause occasional earthquakes at various points along its length. The final landscape shaping, as we know it today, was created by erosional forces such as seeping water in the rocks, winds, and plant roots, operating over millions of years.