The geology of the Tsuk Tamrur area, like most of Israel, is characterised by sedimentary rocks rather than metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rocks form over millions of years as material accumulates in layers in the sea or on land. The area is home to several sedimentary rocks, including chalk, dolomite, and flint.
Chalk, composed of the mineral calcite (CaCO3), is light in colour. This rock forms as a result of both chemical and biological sedimentation, precisely the accumulation of sea creature skeletons made of calcite. These skeletons are preserved today as fossils within the rock layers.
Dolomite rocks are similar to chalk but are harder, usually darker, and tend to have a brownish tint. In addition to calcite, dolomite crystals contain magnesium ions (Mg). These rocks form the majority of the cliffs that line the Dead Sea.
Finally, there are flint rocks. These hard rocks have a dark outer layer and often a glassy appearance. They are composed of the mineral silica (SiO2). Early humans used flint to create tools, such as cutting implements, spears, and arrowheads. Even now, remains of these tools can be found scattered throughout the region. The friction between flint rocks can create sparks, a quality that made them useful for starting fires in early humans.
Below the flint rock layers, you typically find layers of chalk. These rocks are dazzling white and have a roundish shape. They are made up of many broken skeletons of microscopic sea snails.
While other rocks, such as chert and claystone, can be found in the area, they are less common.