The main Christmas market of Nurenberg was a swamp area on the banks of the Pegnitz in the 12th century. At that time Jews came to the city, who had been expelled from the Rhineland. They were first who settled on the swamp. After one hundred years two separate wall rings on the right and left of the Pegnitz, were closed. The Jewish found themselves located in the center of the city. With the consent of Emperor Charles IV, a pogrom occurred in 1349, in which almost 600 Jews were killed and the Jewish settlement destroyed.