Places to visit in Виксберг, Rolling Fork, Cleveland, Clarksdale, Tunica, Germantown

Romantic Road trip in Vicksburg, Rolling Fork, Clarksdale, Tunica, Germantown of May 23, 2021


The open road stretched before us, beckoning us to embark on a journey of discovery and adventure. We set out from Vicksburg, Mississippi, the historic town known for its charm and Southern hospitality. Our first stop was the Corners Mansion Inn, a grand old mansion where we spent the night in luxury and indulgence.

The following day, we ventured to the Levee Street Marketplace, a vibrant hub of local culture and commerce. We strolled among the stalls, admiring the handcrafted goods and sampling the delicious fare of the Deep South. From there, we continued to the Vicksburg National Military Park, where we explored the hallowed grounds and learned about the history of the Civil War.

Our journey then took us to Rolling Fork, Mississippi, where we visited the Visitors Center & Museum and discovered the rich heritage of the Mississippi Delta. We also stopped at Mont Helena, a beautiful plantation home with a stunning view of the surrounding landscape.

As we made our way to Clarksdale, Mississippi, we drove along the Blues Crossroads Highways 61 and 49, taking in the sights and sounds of the region that gave birth to the blues. At the Delta Blues Museum, we were immersed in the area's musical history, learning about the legends who paved the way for modern music.

Our final stop was at the iconic Hollywood Cafe in Hollywood, Mississippi, where we savoured the flavours of classic Southern cuisine and basked in the ambience of a bygone era.

As we left Clarksdale, the sun was beginning to set, casting a warm glow over the rolling hills of the Mississippi Delta. We hopped back in our car and made our way towards Tunica, eager to take in the natural beauty of the Mississippi River at sunset. The Tunica River Park did not disappoint - the tranquil waters were bathed in a golden light, and we spent a few blissful moments just taking in the scenery. As the sky turned from gold to pink to purple, we realised we were hungry and decided to head towards our final destination for the night, the Hilton Garden Inn Memphis East Germantown. The drive took us through some charming small towns, and we chatted happily about the memories we had made that day. Finally, we arrived at the hotel and were delighted to find a cosy room waiting for us, complete with all the amenities we needed to make our stay comfortable. We couldn't wait to explore Germantown and see what adventures the next day would bring.

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Author & Co-authors
Evgeny Praisman (author)
Здравствуйте! Меня зовут Женя, я путешественник и гид. Здесь я публикую свои путешествия и путеводители по городам и странам. Вы можете воспользоваться ими, как готовыми путеводителями, так и ресурсом для создания собственных маршрутов. Некоторые находятся в свободном доступе, некоторые открываются по промо коду. Чтобы получить промо код напишите мне сообщение на телефон +972 537907561 или на и я с радостью вам помогу! Иначе, зачем я всё это делаю?
Assia Praisman
I love travelling and capturing everything I see through my photography! Every new place I visit allows me to capture the beauty and uniqueness of the world. And what's even more exciting is that I have a talent for finding the most excellent hotels. I enjoy exploring reviews, photos and selecting places that offer comfort, style, and excellent service. Finding such a hotel elevates my travel experience and makes it more memorable and enjoyable. It's wonderful to combine my passion for travel with my knack for finding the best places to stay!
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The Corners Mansion Inn is a charming bed and breakfast-establishment in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Set in a beautifully restored historic mansion, the inn offers a unique lodging experience with a touch of Southern charm and hospitality. Guests can enjoy the elegance of the Victorian era with modern amenities for a comfortable and memorable stay.

The mansion, built in the 19th century, features various architectural styles, including Greek Revival and Italianate influences. It boasts a wide range of luxurious guest rooms, each with distinct character and decor. The inn's amenities may include private baths, WiFi, air conditioning, and a delicious breakfast in the elegant dining room.

The Corners Mansion Inn is situated near the Mississippi River, offering guests a picturesque view and easy access to the historic district of Vicksburg. There are plenty of activities and attractions nearby, such as the Vicksburg National Military Park, the Old Courthouse Museum, and various antebellum homes.

Overall, the Corners Mansion Inn provides a relaxing and romantic getaway for couples, families, or solo travellers looking to experience the history and charm of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

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Upon entering the living rooms of the Corners Mansion Inn, guests are transported back in time to the luxury and grace of the colonial era. The rooms feature a harmonious blend of antiques and period-style furnishings that evoke the grandeur of the 19th century.

The furniture consists of elegant pieces of rich, dark wood with intricate carvings and ornate detailing. Plush, high-backed chairs and sofas are upholstered in luxurious fabrics and adorned with fringes and tassels. The living rooms are decorated with fine artwork, gilded mirrors, and exquisite chandeliers that cast a warm, ambient glow.

The breakfast tradition at the Corners Mansion Inn pays homage to the culinary heritage of the South. Guests gather around a long, beautifully set the table in the formal dining room, where they are treated to a delicious and hearty meal prepared with care. The menu features an array of classic Southern dishes, such as fluffy biscuits, savoury grits, and eggs cooked to perfection. To complement the meal, silver cutlery, fine china, and crystal glassware add a touch of sophistication and elegance.

When guests arrive at the mansion, they are welcomed in the true spirit of Southern hospitality. A warm greeting from the innkeepers sets the tone for a memorable stay. Newcomers are often offered a refreshing glass of sweet iced tea or lemonade, as they are invited to sit and relax in the parlour. To further immerse themselves in the colonial atmosphere, guests may enjoy strolls through the well-manicured gardens or partake in traditional pastimes, such as playing croquet or engaging in friendly conversations on the wide veranda.

Overall, the Corners Mansion Inn embraces the essence of the colonial era, from the exquisite living rooms and lavish furnishings to the refined breakfast tradition and warm, welcoming atmosphere.

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The Corners Mansion, a historical gem built in 1873, was constructed by John Alexander Klein, who made Cedar Grove next door and owned a 62-acre tract overlooking the Mississippi River. Klein gifted this house to his eldest daughter, Susan, and her husband, Isaac Bonham, as a wedding present. At its construction, the Mississippi River's east bank was situated at the bottom of the hill, where the railroad tracks are now.

The Corners Mansion's architectural style combines Classic Greek Revival with Italianate features, boasting unique pierced columns with motifs of hearts, shamrocks, rings, and diamonds, symbolising love and marriage. The iron fence enclosing the property was made in Pennsylvania and transported down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. The gardens, designed in the French Creole Parterre style, have been preserved in their original layout, contributing to the property's inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places.

The house across the street and The Galleries building to the right belong to The Corners estate. The building on the north lot, now known as the Galleries, was completed in 1996 and received an award for its compatibility with the historic property.

Corners Mansion's floor plan was inspired by Cedar Grove, albeit on a smaller scale. Tragedy struck the family in the late 19th century with the deaths of Susan and Isaac's two children and Isaac himself. Afterwards, Susan spent most of her time at Cedar Grove until her mother died in 1909. She sold both The Corners and Cedar Grove in 1915 and lived with her nephew until she died in 1935.

The house was converted into apartments during both World Wars before being purchased and restored by Dr Robert and Susan Ivy in 1959. Cliff and Bettye Whitney, Macy's parents, bought the house in 1985 and furnished it with antiques. Macy Whitney and Joe Trahan have owned The Corners Mansion Inn since 2006, continuing the family tradition.

The hallway was designed to capture breezes, with high ceilings and a heart of pine floors. The house could be "summarised" by removing carpets or rugs in the summer and trapping cool air in the walls for insulation. The soil in Vicksburg is known as loess soil, providing stability due to its unique formation during the Pleistocene Ice Age.

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The murals at Catfish Row Art Park serve as a visual journey through Vicksburg's history, capturing significant moments and aspects of the city's past. By examining the mural depictions, visitors can learn about various historical events, cultural influences, and the unique heritage of Vicksburg.

Some of the fundamental historical elements that may be represented in the murals include:

Native American history: Depictions of Native American tribes that originally inhabited the area, such as the Natchez, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribes, showcase the region's indigenous heritage.

European settlement: The arrival of European settlers, particularly the French and Spanish, and their influence on the region's development can be seen through the imagery of early settlements and colonial architecture.

The Civil War: As the site of a crucial siege during the American Civil War, Vicksburg's strategic importance and the effects of the war on the city are likely to be portrayed in the murals, including images of soldiers, battles, and the Vicksburg National Military Park.

Steamboat era: The thriving steamboat industry along the Mississippi River, which brought prosperity and growth to the city, could be represented by images of steamboats, river traffic, and the bustling Catfish Row landing.

Cultural influences: The diverse cultural influences in Vicksburg, including African American, French, and Spanish traditions, may be showcased through depictions of local cuisine, music, dance, and celebrations.

Economic development: Vicksburg's growth as a financial hub, particularly in agriculture, trade, and manufacturing, can be illustrated through images of cotton plantations, mills, and other industries.

Modern Vicksburg: Contemporary aspects of the city, such as its ongoing efforts in historic preservation, tourism, and the arts, can also be depicted in the murals, reflecting Vicksburg's rich past and its continued commitment to fostering cultural appreciation.

Visiting the Catfish Row Art Park provides an opportunity to explore Vicksburg's history through the lens of artistic expression, allowing visitors to appreciate the city's storied past and vibrant culture.

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Catfish Row Art Park in Vicksburg, Mississippi, merges the city's history and contemporary creativity in a lively outdoor space. Showcasing local public art installations, the park also hosts cultural events and performances in its theatre. Visitors can explore landscaped pathways, relax near the Mississippi River, and enjoy the serene ambience. The park contributes to downtown Vicksburg's revitalisation, offering a unique fusion of history, art, and culture.

Park tells the story of the three most known steamboats of Vicksburg.

Attack on the A. O. Tyler On January 13, 1861, steamer A. O. Tyler, heading downriver to New Orleans, was attacked by militia assigned to safeguard Vicksburg. The Tyler, later employed as a U.S. timber-clad gunboat, was inspected and released. The assault on the Tyler, occurring merely four days after Mississippi's secession, marked one of the Civil War's first shots.

C.S.S. Arkansas Encounter The C.S.S. Arkansas, an ironclad constructed in Yazoo City, confronted Union vessels Queen of the West, Tyler, and Carondelet on July 15, 1862, along the Yazoo River. As Arkansas entered the Mississippi River, it sailed past thirty-nine Union ships en route to Vicksburg, inflicting significant damage on the enemy. To prevent its capture, Arkansas was eventually scuttled.

The Sultana Tragedy On April 24, 1865, the steamship Sultana departed Vicksburg carrying over 2,300 Union soldiers, many former prisoners of war, and around 200 civilians, despite a legal capacity limit of 376 individuals. Due to a defective boiler, the Sultana exploded north of Memphis, claiming the lives of at least 1,800 people in the deadliest maritime disaster in U.S. history.

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The Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers played crucial roles in Vicksburg's history and the Civil War. As a strategic location, Vicksburg controlled access to the Mississippi River and its tributaries, making it a vital target for Confederate and Union forces. The 1863 Siege of Vicksburg resulted in a pivotal Union victory, granting them control over the Mississippi River and splitting the Confederacy. The rivers have also been prone to flooding, with Catfish Row, located along the Mississippi River, experiencing significant floods over the years. The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 was devastating, causing widespread damage to Vicksburg and the surrounding areas.

Catfish Row: Vicksburg's Heritage Walking Trail

David Cohn's "God Shakes Creation" (1935) describes the Mississippi Delta beginning in the Peabody Hotel lobby in Memphis, Tennessee, and ending on Catfish Row in Vicksburg. As the city's commerce centre, Catfish Row connected horse-drawn wagons with steamboats and trains. Though not the cleanest area, it bustled with labourers, saloons, and underground activities. If seeking work or "trouble," Catfish Row was an ideal starting point.

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The Vicksburg Campaign was a pivotal series of battles during the American Civil War, with the Union aiming to seize the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Led by General Ulysses S. Grant, the Union forces engaged in numerous fights and manoeuvres in 1862-1863 to gain control of the Mississippi River. The Siege of Vicksburg began on May 18, 1863, when Grant's forces surrounded the city, cutting off supplies and reinforcements. After 47 days of relentless bombardment and deteriorating conditions, Confederate General John C. Pemberton surrendered on July 4, 1863. The Union's capture of Vicksburg divided the Confederacy, granting the North control of the Mississippi River and marking a turning point in the Civil War.

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The Old Depot Museum, located in Vicksburg, Mississippi, was built as a railroad depot in 1890 by the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad (Y&MV). The depot was strategically placed in Vicksburg due to its position on the Mississippi River, allowing easy access to transportation and trade routes. The Y&MV railroad, a subsidiary of the Illinois Central Railroad, constructed the depot to facilitate the movement of goods and passengers.

During its active years, the depot was utilised by various railroad companies, including the Y&MV and later the Illinois Central Railroad. Goods such as cotton, lumber, and agricultural products were commonly transported through the depot, along with passengers travelling to and from various destinations.

Today, the Old Depot Museum serves as a testament to the rich history of Vicksburg and the vital role that railroads played in the region's economic development. The museum showcases numerous artefacts and exhibits related to the history of railroads, the Civil War, and the city of Vicksburg.

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Levee Street Marketplace in Vicksburg is a delightful shopping destination that brings together a variety of local vendors and artisans under one roof. Located near the Mississippi River, the marketplace allows visitors to explore various unique items, including handmade crafts, antiques, home décor, and regional foods. In addition to shopping, the marketplace often hosts special events, making it a vibrant community gathering space. Levee Street Marketplace is the perfect spot for visitors and locals alike to discover charming souvenirs and one-of-a-kind treasures while supporting local businesses.

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At the Vicksburg Flea Market on Levee Street Marketplace, visitors can journey through American history by exploring various unique items that reflect the nation's past. Among the historical treasures are cotton, old telephones, whistles, cola bottles, spoons, and wooden toys.

Cotton, once the driving force behind the Southern economy, played a crucial role in the country's development. Today, antique cotton bales and cotton-related memorabilia at the flea market serve as a reminder of the industry's significance and its impact on the lives of countless individuals.

Old telephones, a symbol of technological advancements, showcase the evolution of communication. From early rotary phones to more recent push-button models, these relics of the past allow us to appreciate the progress made in connecting people across vast distances.

Whistles, found in various shapes and sizes, highlight their diverse uses throughout history. From signalling devices for train conductors to tools for referees in sports, whistles represent both innovation and practicality.

Vintage cola bottles, with their iconic designs, transport visitors back to an era of soda fountains and local drugstores. These collectables testify to the enduring popularity of classic American beverages and the marketing ingenuity behind them.

Antique spoons, often adorned with intricate patterns and engravings, demonstrate the craftsmanship of ancient times. Each piece tells a story of family gatherings, shared meals, and the importance of traditions passed down through generations.

Wooden toys, handcrafted by skilled artisans, evoke nostalgia for simpler times when imagination and creativity fueled playtime. These timeless pieces highlight the value of craftsmanship and the beauty of natural materials.

By exploring the eclectic offerings of the Vicksburg Flea Market on Levee Street Marketplace, visitors can experience a rich tapestry of American history, as told through the objects that shaped its culture, industry, and daily life.

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Main Street in Vicksburg, Mississippi, is a historic thoroughfare that has played a vital role in the city's development since its early days. While the exact date of its construction is uncertain, the street was laid out as the town expanded and grew during the early-to-mid 19th century. As a bustling centre of commerce and social life, Main Street has witnessed countless events and stories.

During the Civil War, Vicksburg was a strategic point of interest for the Union and Confederate forces due to its location on the Mississippi River. Main Street, as a central artery of the city, would have been affected by the events of the Vicksburg Campaign and the Siege of Vicksburg. The nearly 47-day-long siege by Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant culminated in the city's surrender on July 4, 1863, a pivotal moment in the war.

Several significant buildings and houses line Main Street, each with its unique history and architectural charm:

The Biedenharn Coca-Cola Museum: Located at 1107 Washington Street, this historic building was where Coca-Cola was first bottled in 1894 by Joseph Biedenharn. The museum now showcases Coca-Cola memorabilia and the history of the iconic beverage. The Old Court House Museum: This stately building at 1008 Cherry Street was completed in 1858 and served as the county courthouse. It now operates as a museum, housing numerous artefacts and exhibits related to the history of Vicksburg and the Civil War. The Levee Street Marketplace: A historic building on Levee Street transformed into a vibrant marketplace featuring local vendors, artisans, and antiques, offering visitors a taste of Vicksburg's past and present. These are just a few examples of the significant buildings and houses along Main Street in Vicksburg. As you stroll down the street, you'll find numerous other historic structures and landmarks, each contributing to the rich tapestry of the city's past and present.

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Vicksburg National Military Park is a historic site located in Vicksburg, Mississippi. The park commemorates the Siege of Vicksburg, a pivotal moment in the American Civil War. It includes over 1,330 historic monuments and markers, 20 miles of reconstructed trenches and earthworks, and the restored USS Cairo, a Union ironclad gunboat.

The park's Visitor Center features exhibits and displays that tell the story of the siege, including the daily life of soldiers and civilians during the war. Visitors can also take a guided tour of the battlefield or explore it by car or foot.

The Siege of Vicksburg lasted from May 18 to July 4, 1863. It resulted in a Union victory, cutting the Confederacy in two and securing control of the Mississippi River for the Union army. The battle was one of the most significant events of the Civil War and is considered a turning point.

In addition to the battlefield, the park also includes the Vicksburg National Cemetery, the final resting place for over 17,000 Union soldiers, and the USS Cairo Museum, which showcases the restored ironclad gunboat that sank in the Yazoo River in 1862 and was raised in 1964.

The park attracts thousands of visitors each year and serves as a reminder of the sacrifice and struggle of those who fought in the Civil War.

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Vicksburg National Military Park is a historic site that commemorates the events of the Vicksburg Campaign, Siege, and Defense during the Civil War. The Union victory in 1863, which established Federal control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy, was a turning point in the war. Vicksburg's strategic location as the primary Confederate stronghold on the river made it a crucial target for Union forces. Over 100,000 soldiers and sailors from 28 states, North and South, fought in the campaign and siege.

After two failed assaults on Vicksburg's defences, Union General Ulysses S. Grant switched to siege tactics to take the city. Confederate General John C. Pemberton and his troops were locked in the town for 47 days, with no hope of supplies or reinforcements from outside. They finally surrendered on July 4, 1863, and the Stars and Stripes again flew over Vicksburg.

The park's 16-mile tour road travels through the Union assault and siege locations and then along the Confederate defensive lines. Stops along the way provide insight into when two armies fought on this land. The park's more than 1,300 plaques, markers, and memorials make it one of the largest collections of outdoor sculptures in the country. Soldiers from nearly all the 28 states that fought in the campaign and siege have erected monuments in the park to honour the men who served.

The silent hills and fields of the park cannot convey the suffering and sacrifice that took place during the struggle for control of Vicksburg and the Mississippi River. But the many monuments dot the park serve as a testament to the noble manhood of those who fought and died for their principles and country. As the inscription on the Pennsylvania State Memorial reads, "Here brothers fought for their principles, here heroes died for their country, and a united people will forever cherish the precious legacy of their noble manhood."

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The Ohio Memorial is one of the many monuments in Vicksburg National Military Park. Dedicated in 1905, the memorial was built to honour the soldiers of Ohio who fought in the Vicksburg Campaign and Siege during the Civil War.

The memorial's design features a large central column topped by a statue of a soldier in a Union uniform. Surrounding the column are four smaller statues representing the infantry, cavalry, artillery, and navy. Each sculpture is mounted on a pedestal with the names of Ohio soldiers who fought in the campaign inscribed on it.

The Ohio Memorial also features a series of bronze reliefs depicting scenes from the battle, including the Union assault on the Confederate earthworks and the surrender of Vicksburg. Sculptor Herman Atkins MacNeil designed the reliefs.

The Ohio Memorial is prominent in the park, near the entrance to the park's tour road. It serves as a tribute to the bravery and sacrifice of the Ohio soldiers who fought to secure a Union victory in Vicksburg, a pivotal moment in the Civil War.

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Battery De Golyer was a prominent artillery emplacement on the Union siege lines during the Siege of Vicksburg in 1863. It was named after Union Captain James De Golyer, who was killed during the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou in December 1862. The battery was positioned on a high ridge overlooking the city of Vicksburg and was a crucial part of the Union's siege operations. It was armed with several heavy guns, including a 30-pounder Parrott rifle and a 4.5-inch Blakely rifle, and played a significant role in the bombardment of the Confederate positions in the city. The battery was eventually abandoned by the Union forces after the city surrendered on July 4, 1863. Today, the site of Battery De Golyer is preserved as part of the Vicksburg National Military Park. The public can visit it as a reminder of the intense fighting during the Civil War.

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The Illinois Memorial in Vicksburg National Military Park is a tribute to the soldiers from Illinois who fought in the Siege of Vicksburg during the American Civil War. The memorial was designed by W. L. B. Jenney and dedicated in 1906. The 47-foot-tall monument is made of granite and features bronze sculptures depicting scenes from the battle.

The memorial's base is a pedestal adorned with bronze reliefs of scenes from the siege, including soldiers preparing for battle and caring for the wounded. The statue on top of the pedestal is a bronze eagle perched on a globe, symbolising America's victory in the war.

Visitors to the memorial can climb the spiral staircase inside the monument to a viewing platform at the top, which offers panoramic views of the park and the surrounding area.

The Illinois Memorial is one of the many monuments in Vicksburg National Military Park, which commemorates the campaign, siege, and defence of Vicksburg during the Civil War. It is one of the park's most recognisable and iconic landmarks, honouring the sacrifices of the soldiers who fought for Illinois and the Union.

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Sherley House is a historic structure located in the Vicksburg National Military Park. It was initially built in 1830 and was used as a residence during the Civil War. During the Siege of Vicksburg, the house was occupied by both Union and Confederate soldiers at different times.

The Sherley House saw heavy damage during the siege, with its walls riddled with bullet holes and cannon fire. Despite the destruction, the house remained standing and was restored to its original condition.

Today, visitors to the Vicksburg National Military Park can tour the Sherley House and learn about its role in the Civil War. The house serves as a reminder of the intense fighting and destruction that occurred during the siege of Vicksburg, as well as the resilience of the people and structures that survived.

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During the Siege of Vicksburg, Union troops dug towards the Third Louisiana Redan when Confederate sharpshooters began targeting them, making their work difficult. Lieutenant Henry Foster, nicknamed "Coonskin," built a tower out of railroad ties to protect his comrades. Union sharpshooters concealed in Coonskin's Tower used a mirror to watch for Confederate sharpshooters aiming at Federal soldiers below, allowing them to beat their enemies to the trigger without becoming targets. This tower played an essential role in the siege and is known as Coonskin's Tower.

"Third Louisiana Redan" refers to a fortification constructed during the American Civil War. "Redan" refers to a V-shaped fortification with walls that angle outwards, which was a typical design during the Civil War. The "Third Louisiana" refers to the Confederate unit responsible for constructing and defending the redan.

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During the American Civil War, Wisconsin contributed over 90,000 soldiers to the Union army, including over 8,000 who fought in the Vicksburg Campaign and Siege. Wisconsin units participated in many of the major battles and campaigns of the war, including Antietam, Gettysburg, and Sherman's March to the Sea. The 8th Wisconsin Infantry, whose mascot "Old Abe" sits atop the Wisconsin State Memorial in Vicksburg, was a famous regiment that saw action in many battles, including Vicksburg. Wisconsin soldiers were noted for their bravery and discipline, and the state's contributions to the Union war effort played a significant role in the ultimate victory.

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Old Graveyard Road is located within Vicksburg National Military Park in Vicksburg, Mississippi. The park commemorates the Battle of Vicksburg, a significant Civil War battle in 1863 between the Confederate Army led by General John C. Pemberton and the Union Army led by General Ulysses S. Grant. The Union victory at Vicksburg was a pivotal moment in the Civil War, as it gave the Union Army control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in two.

Vicksburg National Military Park was established in 1899 and now covers over 1,800 acres. The park features numerous monuments, memorials, and markers, as well as reconstructed trenches and other fortifications. Old Graveyard Road is one of the roads within the park that visitors can use to explore the various sites and learn about the history of the Battle of Vicksburg. The road likely gets its name due to its proximity to the Vicksburg City Cemetery, which is adjacent to the military park.

Visitors can take self-guided driving tours throughout the park, stopping at key locations to learn about the events during the battle. In addition to the historical sites, Vicksburg National Military Park also offers recreational opportunities such as hiking and birdwatching.

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As you explore the defenses of Vicksburg at the Vicksburg National Military Park, you will be able to see the extensive fortifications that the Confederates constructed to protect the city from Union attack. The tour road, which travels east and then south along the Confederate lines, will take you through several key points of interest:

Confederate state memorials: These memorials honor the troops who fought in the Battle of Vicksburg. Each memorial is dedicated to a specific state and its soldiers who participated in the battle. You'll find memorials dedicated to states such as Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and more. Forts and Redoubts: Along the tour road, you'll encounter several forts and redoubts that formed a crucial part of the Confederate defenses. Some of these include: Stockade Redan: A triangular-shaped fortification located on the northern end of the Confederate lines. This fort played a significant role in the early stages of the Siege of Vicksburg. Great Redoubt: A large earthwork fortification that was strategically positioned on a hill to provide excellent views of the surrounding area and Union forces. Railroad Redoubt: A smaller fortification located near the Southern Railroad of Mississippi, it was an important defensive position for the Confederates. Fort Garrott: Named after Col. Isaac Garrott, who was killed during the siege, this fortification was heavily involved in the fighting and ultimately fell to Union forces. Surrender site: At the end of the 47-day siege, General Ulysses S. Grant and General John C. Pemb

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The USS Cairo Museum is located within the Vicksburg National Military Park in Vicksburg, Mississippi. It is dedicated to preserving and displaying the remains of the USS Cairo, a Union ironclad gunboat that played a crucial role during the American Civil War.

The USS Cairo was one of seven City-class ironclads built for the Union Navy and was named after Cairo, Illinois. These gunboats were heavily armed and armoured, making them an essential part of the Union's river fleet. On December 12, 1862, the USS Cairo struck a Confederate mine (called a torpedo at the time) in the Yazoo River, north of Vicksburg. The explosion sank the ship in just 12 minutes, marking the first time an electrically detonated mine sank an armoured warship.

The Cairo lay undiscovered and primarily intact at the bottom of the Yazoo River for over a century. In the 1960s, it was located and raised from the river, and efforts were made to preserve and restore the vessel. The recovery of Cairo was a significant achievement, as it is one of the few remaining examples of a Civil War-era ironclad gunboat.

Today, the USS Cairo Museum showcases the restored remains of the ship, along with artefacts recovered from the wreckage. Visitors can learn about the history of the vessel, its crew, and the role it played during the Civil War. The museum also features exhibits on naval warfare during the era and the technology used in ironclad ships. The USS Cairo Museum is an essential stop for visitors to explore the park.

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The Lafayette and USS Essex were two riverboats that were converted into ironclad gunboats and played important roles during the American Civil War as part of the Union fleet on the Mississippi River. These vessels were crucial in the Union's strategy to control the Mississippi River and its tributaries, which ultimately led to the division and defeat of the Confederacy.

Lafayette: Originally a river steamer, the Lafayette was converted into an ironclad gunboat and became a key part of the Union fleet on the Mississippi River. On April 16, 1863, she was among the first ships to run past the shore batteries at Vicksburg. Despite being hampered by another ship lashed to her side and receiving nine effective shots through her casemate, the Lafayette survived the encounter. The successful passage of the Union squadron past the heavy batteries at Vicksburg contributed to the early seizure of Grand Gulf, the eventual fall of Vicksburg, and ultimately the Union conquest of the Mississippi River. The Lafayette survived the war and was sold at auction in 1866. USS Essex: Originally named the New Era, this center-wheel steamer was built in St. Louis in 1856. The US government purchased the vessel in 1861 for $20,000 and renamed it the USS Essex. James B. Eads, the builder of the USS Cairo, carried out the conversion to an ironclad. The Essex took part in the attack on Fort Henry in 1862 but was forced out of action due to damage to her boilers. After reinforcing the forward part of the ship it became the strong vessel in the fleet.

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The Brown Water Navy was a crucial component of the United States Navy during the American Civil War. Tasked with taking control of the Mississippi River and its tributaries from the Confederacy, this diverse fleet was made up of various types of ships, including cottonclads, timberclads, tinclads, and ironclad gunboats like the USS Cairo. These vessels navigated the shallow inland waters of the Mississippi River, disrupting Confederate supply lines, bombarding fortifications, and supporting the Union Army.

The sailors of the Brown Water Navy came from various backgrounds, including poor working-class Northern cities, foreign immigrants, and formerly enslaved individuals seeking freedom and a new life. Despite the harsh onboard conditions, these sailors served with distinction, playing a key role in the Union's victory on the Mississippi River.

James B. Eads, an engineer and shipyard owner, was hired to build the City-class ironclads, including the USS Cairo, at an average cost of $101,808 each. Working under tight deadlines, Eads and his partner shipyard managed to deliver all seven ironclads within 100 days.

Andrew H. Foote took command of the Mississippi River flotilla in August 1861. In cooperation with Ulysses S. Grant's land forces, Foote led the successful assault on Fort Henry on the Tennessee River. He was wounded in the leg during the subsequent attack on Fort Donelson while commanding the USS St. Louis. Foote was promoted to rear admiral in July 1862.

On February 14, 1862, Foote's gunboat flotilla steamed up the Cumberland River to engage Confederate water batteries near Fort Donelson.

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The Rolling Fork Visitors Center & Museum in Rolling Fork, Mississippi, is a place for tourists and locals to learn about the history, culture, and natural environment of the region. While I cannot provide real-time information on visiting hours and entrance fees, the visitor centre and museum likely showcase the area's rich history, including its connection to agriculture, the cotton industry, and the Mississippi Delta's cultural heritage.

Additionally, the Rolling Fork Visitors Center & Museum may provide information on local attractions, such as the birthplace of blues legend Muddy Waters and natural attractions, like the Delta National Forest and the Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge.

Rolling Fork, a town in Mississippi, has a rich history that began in 1826 when Thomas Y. Chaney bought land to use as a plantation during a surveying trip. He and his wife were the first white settlers in the area, and their daughter, Sarah, was the first white child born in what is now Sharkey County. In 1828, Chaney planted the first acre of cotton on the present-day grounds of the Sharkey County Courthouse.

The town continued to grow throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1876, Sharkey County was named after William L. Sharkey, the provisional Governor of Mississippi. Rolling Fork was designated the county seat. The first issue of The Deer Creek Pilot was published in the same year, and it is still in publication today.

Transportation played a significant role in the growth of Rolling Fork. In the early 1800s, flatboats, ferries, and steamboats were used for travel and cargo transport. By the latter part of the 1800s, railroads arrived in the area, with Rolling Fork becoming a designated stop for passenger and freight trains in 1883. In the 20th century, the construction of U.S. Highway 61 further connected the town to other regions.

Throughout the years, Rolling Fork saw various milestones and developments, including the establishment of a post office in 1848, the construction of a waterworks and electric-lighting plant in 1919, and the town's electrification by Mississippi Power & Light in 1929. In 1946-51, Fielding L. Wright, a native of Rolling Fork, was elected governor of Mississippi.

Agriculture has been the primary industry and economic driver in Rolling Fork, Mississippi, supporting local businesses and providing job opportunities beyond farming. As the town grew, various companies and establishments contributed to its thriving community.

In 1907, Meek's Drug Store, located in downtown Rolling Fork, featured a soda fountain that became a popular gathering place for locals. On the side of Meek's Drug Store, there was an advertisement for the Van Amburg Circus, which visited Rolling Fork on October 22, 1907.

During the 1950s to the 1980s, businesses in Rolling Fork continued to thrive, with establishments like Beaudron's Gun Shop, Small Engine Repair, South Delta Motors, South Delta Farm Insurance, and Nierstheimer Service providing goods and services to the community.

In the 1990s, discount chain stores and restaurants began moving into the area, leading to a decline in family-owned businesses. In 2002, the Lower Delta Partnership, a non-profit organisation, was formed to promote tourism and showcase the South Delta's natural and cultural assets. The city of Rolling Fork and private, non-profit groups individually sponsored events to encourage tourism and boost the local economy.

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In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt was invited to the Mississippi Delta for a black bear hunt by the owner of Smedes Plantation in Southern Sharkey County. The renowned bear hunter Holt Collier was chosen as the president's guide for this adventure.

Holt Collier was a legendary African American bear hunter born into slavery in Mississippi. After the Civil War, he continued hunting bears and became famous for his exceptional skills. Collier had hunted and killed over 3,000 bears in his lifetime, earning him the title of "The Great Bear Hunter."

During the hunting trip with President Roosevelt, Collier tracked and cornered a black bear, which was subsequently tied to a tree. However, when Roosevelt arrived at the scene, he refused to shoot the tethered bear, considering it unsportsmanlike. This event inspired a political cartoonist, Clifford Berryman, to create a cartoon depicting the president's refusal to shoot the bear. The funny, in turn, led to the creation of the famous stuffed toy known as the "Teddy Bear," named after Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt.

There is a little bit tricky story as this: HOLT COLLIER Holt Collier was born in 1846 as an enslaved person on Howell Hinds' Home Hill Plantation in Jeffer- son County, MS. As a youth, he cared for the hound dogs on the plantation. When Holt was ten years old, he was taken to another plantation located in Washington County, MS. His primary duty was to provide meat for the plantation workers. He became an excellent marksman. Holt killed his first bear at the age of I0. When the Civil War began, Holt joined the Confederacy. He was only 14 years old. Holt was involved in the action and served as a military spy. After the war, he spent some time in Texas then returned to Washington County. Holt became a well-known bear hunter. He is credited with killing more than 3,000 bears. In 1902, Holt Collier led President Theodore Roosevelt on a bear-hunting expedition in Sharkey County, MS. Holt and his tracking dogs cornered a bear and summoned the President to join them. Before the President arrived, the bear attacked Holt's best track- ing dog, Jocko. Furious, Holt hit the bear over the head with his rifle, then tied him to a tree. When the President arrived, he saw the helpless bear and refused to shoot him. Holt Collier died in 1936 and is buried in Live Oak Cemetery in Greenville, MS, near the the area where he killed his first bear.

Muddy Waters, born McKinley Morganfield on April 4, 1913, was an influential American blues musician, often called the "Father of Modern Chicago Blues." He was born in either Issaquena County or neighbouring Sharkey County, near Rolling Fork, Mississippi, and spent his early years on the Stovall Plantation in Mississippi, near Clarksdale. The Mississippi Delta region, including towns like Rolling Fork and Clarksdale, played a significant role in shaping the blues music Muddy Waters would later become famous for. His connection to Rolling Fork is his birth and early life in the surrounding area, which influenced his development as a musician and contributed to his iconic blues style.

Some of Muddy Waters' most famous songs include "Hoochie Coochie Man," "I'm Ready," and "Mannish Boy.”

Rolling Fork, Mississippi, is a small town located in the Mississippi Delta region. It is situated near the Mississippi River and its tributaries, known for its muddy and sediment-filled waters. The term "muddy water" in Rolling Fork can refer to the water in the nearby rivers, streams, and creeks, which can become particularly muddy due to soil erosion and runoff, especially during heavy rain or flooding.

The muddy waters in the area result from the rich alluvial soil found in the Mississippi Delta, which contributes to the region's agricultural productivity. However, this soil can quickly erode and become suspended in the water, giving it a cloudy appearance. This characteristic of the local waterways is a critical aspect of the region's landscape and history, including its connection to the development of the blues music genre. The term "muddy waters" has been used metaphorically in blues lyrics to represent various hardships and challenges faced by people living in the Delta region.

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Mont Helena, the historic house located in Rolling Fork, Mississippi, not only stands as a beautiful architectural gem but also as a symbol of Helen's life and the love story she shared with Henry. The house is now a popular tourist destination, offering guided tours that often highlight the romantic and tragic tale of Helen and Henry. Visitors can learn about the history of the home, the families who lived there, and the region's rich past.

Mont Helena is connected to the tragic love story of Helen Johnstone and Henry Vick. Following the death of her fiancé, Henry Vick, Helen eventually married George Harris, a cotton planter from Louisiana, in 1861. They built Mont Helena in 1896, and the home served as their residence.

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This tragic love story occurs in the mid-19th century in Mississippi between Henry Vick and Helen Johnstone. Henry, a young man from a prominent family, meets the beautiful and wealthy Helen when he seeks help at a nearby plantation after his carriage overturns. The two fall in love and eventually become engaged, with plans to marry on Helen's 20th birthday, May 21, 1859.

However, a series of unfortunate events unfold that ultimately lead to a devastating outcome. A disagreement between Henry and his childhood friend, James Stith, over the treatment of Henry's servant Jake, results in a bitter falling out between the two men.

Weeks later, while in New Orleans for wedding preparations, Henry encounters an angry James, who challenges him to a duel at dawn. Having promised Helen never to kill his opponent in a contest, Henry fires into the air while James takes aim and shoots Henry in the head, killing him instantly.

Henry's body is brought back to Mississippi, and on what would have been their wedding day, a heartbroken Helen attends his funeral wearing her wedding gown and a black veil. She pledges her eternal love to Henry and promises never to give her heart to another. This poignant tale of love and tragedy continues to resonate as a reminder of the powerful impact of loyalty, honour, and devotion.

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J & W Smokehouse smoking meat in Mississippi and its history and traditions.

The Culture of Smoking Meat in Mississippi:

Mississippi has a rich culinary heritage, and one of its most iconic traditions is smoking meat, particularly pork and beef. The culture of smoking meat in Mississippi is profoundly ingrained and passed down through generations. It is an essential part of social gatherings, community events, and family celebrations, where friends and family come together to enjoy slow-cooked, smoky, and tender meats.

Smoking meat involves cooking it at low temperatures, usually between 200 and 250 degrees Fahrenheit, over an indirect heat source, often using wood or charcoal. This slow and steady approach allows the meat to become tender and infused with the flavours of the wood, creating a unique and delicious taste.

History and Traditions:

The history of smoking meat in Mississippi can be traced back to the indigenous peoples who lived there before European settlers arrived. They used smoking to preserve meat, imparting a distinct flavour that has been cherished ever since. As European settlers arrived, they adopted and adapted these techniques, incorporating their culinary traditions and preferences.

In Mississippi, barbecue culture has deep roots in African American history. Enslaved Africans, who were brought to the South, also contributed to the development of smoking and barbecuing techniques. They used their knowledge of spices, flavours, and slow-cooking methods to create unique and delicious dishes that would become an integral part of Southern cuisine.

Over time, smoking meat in Mississippi has evolved into a culinary art form, with each region boasting its unique style and flavour profile. Some of the most popular types of Mississippi barbecue include:

Mississippi Delta Style: This style is known for its tangy, vinegar-based sauce and whole hogs, smoked over a mix of hickory and pecan wood. The result is tender, moist, and flavorful meat that pairs perfectly with the sharp, zesty sauce. Mississippi Gulf Coast Style: Influenced by the coastal region's seafood culture, this style often incorporates smoked fish and seafood alongside traditional pork and beef dishes. A sweet, tomato-based sauce gives the meats a unique and bold flavour. Central Mississippi Style: This style is characterised by its use of a sweet, tangy, and slightly spicy sauce, which is often mustard-based. The meats are smoked over various wood planks, including hickory, oak, and pecan, creating a complex and layered flavour profile. These regional styles, among others, contribute to the rich tapestry of smoking meat traditions in Mississippi. Today, these traditions continue to thrive in smokehouses, restaurants, and backyard barbecues across the state, where pitmasters and enthusiasts alike gather to celebrate and enjoy the delicious flavours of smoked meats.

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The Blues Crossroads, also known as the Crossroads, is a legendary location in the Mississippi Delta where, according to popular folklore, blues musician Robert Johnson sold his soul to the devil in exchange for unparalleled talent and success in his music career. The Crossroads is believed to be the intersection of Highways 61 and 49 in Clarksdale, Mississippi. This intersection has become an iconic symbol of the blues music genre and its deep roots in the Mississippi Delta.

The legend of the Crossroads has been immortalized in many blues songs, with perhaps the most famous being Robert Johnson's own "Cross Road Blues." This song, recorded in 1936, tells the story of a man standing at the crossroads, asking the Lord for mercy and guidance. The story of Johnson's supposed deal with the devil has captivated the imagination of blues fans and musicians alike, adding to the mystique of the genre.

The Mississippi Delta is known as the birthplace of the blues, a musical style that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. African American musicians in the region blended African rhythms, work songs, and spirituals with European musical traditions to create a unique and powerful sound that would become the foundation of modern American music. The blues is characterized by its soulful, emotive lyrics and distinctive chord progressions, which often explore themes of heartache, hardship, and perseverance.

Clarksdale, Mississippi, and the surrounding Delta region have produced many iconic blues musicians, including Muddy Waters, B.B. King, Howlin' Wolf, and John Lee Hooker. Today, the area remains a hub for blues music, with numerous juke joints, music festivals, and cultural landmarks that celebrate the genre's history and influence.

One notable attraction is the Delta Blues Museum in Clarksdale, which is dedicated to preserving and promoting the history of the blues. The museum features exhibits, artifacts, and educational programs that showcase the music, musicians, and cultural context that gave rise to the blues.

The Blues Crossroads remains a popular pilgrimage site for blues enthusiasts, musicians, and tourists. The intersection of Highways 61 and 49 is marked by a large, blue, three-guitar sculpture that commemorates the legendary location and its significance in blues history. Visitors to the Crossroads can also explore the rich musical landscape of the Mississippi Delta and discover the enduring legacy of the blues.

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Abe's Bar-B-Q is a historic barbecue restaurant in Clarksdale, Mississippi, near the famous Blues Crossroads. Established in 1924 by Abraham Davis, a Lebanese immigrant, the restaurant has been serving mouthwatering barbecue to locals and visitors for nearly a century. Over the years, it has become a local institution and a must-visit spot for those exploring the rich culinary and musical heritage of the Mississippi Delta.

Welcome to the legendary Crossroads at Highways 49 and 61 in Clarksdale, Mississippi, where blues history and folklore come together in a unique and fascinating way. This is the very spot where, according to legend, Robert Johnson made his infamous pact with the devil, trading his soul for the ability to play a mean blues guitar like no other.

Right across the street from this fabled location, you'll find Abe's Bar-B-Q, a culinary institution that has been serving delicious barbecue since 1924. The founder, Abe Davis, is said to have surrendered his soul to Jesus in exchange for the recipe of his now-famous barbecue sauce. This story adds another layer of intrigue to the already rich history of the area, creating a unique juxtaposition between the blues and the good news.

Clarksdale has always been known for its strong connections to blues music and its vibrant culture. The town has produced numerous blues legends, and its reputation as the birthplace of the blues continues to attract visitors from all over the world. In addition to its rich musical heritage, Clarksdale is also celebrated for its delicious Southern cuisine, exemplified by Abe's Bar-B-Q.

When visiting the Crossroads and Abe's Bar-B-Q, you'll not only be able to appreciate the deep musical roots of the blues but also savor the mouthwatering flavors of Mississippi barbecue. This combination of blues history, folklore, and culinary excellence makes Clarksdale a truly unforgettable destination for anyone seeking to explore the vibrant heart of the Mississippi Delta.

Abe's Bar-B-Q is known for its distinctive blend of Southern barbecue traditions with influences from the founder's Lebanese heritage. Their signature dish is the "Big Abe" sandwich, which consists of slow-smoked pulled pork or chopped beef topped with coleslaw, pickles, and Abe's famous hot barbecue sauce, all served on a soft bun. In addition to the Big Abe, the menu also offers a variety of other barbecue dishes, such as ribs, smoked sausage, and chicken, along with traditional Southern sides like baked beans, potato salad, and fried okra.

The restaurant's unassuming exterior belies the rich history and culinary treasures that await inside. The walls are adorned with memorabilia, photographs, and newspaper clippings that tell the story of Abe's Bar-B-Q and its connection to the local community and the blues music scene. The laid-back atmosphere and friendly service make it a welcoming spot for first-time visitors and long-time patrons.

Located just a short distance from the legendary Blues Crossroads and the Delta Blues Museum, Abe's Bar-B-Q is an integral part of the Clarksdale experience. A visit to this historic eatery is not only an opportunity to enjoy delicious, authentic Mississippi barbecue but also a chance to immerse oneself in the rich history and culture of the region.

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If you are referring to a European traveler visiting America and wondering if they need to pay for air at a gas station, the answer is that it depends on the location. In the United States, some gas stations provide free air for inflating tires, while others charge a small fee (typically around $1 to $2) for using their air pumps.

For a European traveler unfamiliar with this practice, they may be surprised to find that air is not always free at American gas stations. However, it's important to note that this is not a universally applied rule, and there are still many places where the air is provided free of charge.

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The Delta Blues Museum (DbM) in Clarksdale, Mississippi, has grown from humble beginnings into a world-renowned attraction and a significant component in building the blues tourism industry in the state. Initially, when the museum was established, it attracted only about one visitor a month. The museum was housed in the Myrtle Hall branch library at 1109 N. State Street, with library director Sid Graves (1946-2005) taking the small collection of exhibits home each night for security reasons.

Over time, the museum's visitor count increased as it relocated to the main library at 114 Delta Avenue in 1981, expanded into its adjoining wing in 1996, and moved into the old Y&M V/Illinois Central freight depot in 1999. At that point, the City of Clarksdale took over the administration of the DbM from the library board. The depot's North Edwards Street address was redesignated as No. 1 Blues Alley. In 2012, the museum drew an estimated 25,000 visitors, including paid admissions and attendance at free events. The DbM was a 2013 finalist for the National Medal for Museum and Library Service.

The rock band ZZ Top was vital in raising funds for the museum. The band's guitarist, Billy Gibbons, had some "Muddywood" guitars constructed from fallen boards he found at the house where Muddy Waters once lived on the Stovall plantation. One of the guitars was displayed at Hard Rock Cafes worldwide and became a permanent exhibit at the museum. With the cooperation of the Stovall family, the house was later disassembled, restored, taken on the tour by the House of Blues nightclub chain, and eventually moved to the museum. ZZ Top and many other rock and blues bands performed at benefits for the DbM over the years. A Muddy Waters wing was added to the museum in 2012.

Other blues artists featured in DbM displays have included Son House, Mississippi John Hurt, Big Joe Williams, Little Milton, B.B. King, Big Mama Thornton, Charlie Musselwhite, Mississippi Fred McDowell, Ike Turner, and Bo Diddley. The museum has also hosted exhibits from noted photographers, sculptors, and folk artists, as well as panel discussions, presentations, and book signings with authors, scholars, and musicians.

The DbM has committed significantly to perpetuating the blues and documenting its vast historical legacy. Local bluesmen Johnnie Billington, Michael "Dr Mike" James, and Big Jack Johnson were among the instructors in the first Delta Blues Education Program, which began in 1992. Many students in the program have performed in festivals and concerts, both locally and on tour.

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The Sunflower River Blues Festival, held in Clarksdale, Mississippi, originated from the free Holiday Music Festivals sponsored in 1986 and 1987 by the Downtown Association of Clarksdale as a local business promotion. In 1988, the merchants, along with the Chamber of Commerce and other organisations, decided to create a full-fledged festival, initially called the Sunflower Riverbank Blues Festival. The event featured renowned artists like Otis Rush, James "Son" Thomas, Jessie Mae Hemphill, and others performing on three stages.

In 1990, a biracial group of volunteers with a mission "to preserve, promote, perpetuate, and document the blues in its homeland" formed the nonprofit Sunflower River Blues Association (SRBA). The association produced the annual festival at various locations around Clarksdale until the newly constructed Delta Blues Museum (DBM) stage became its primary base. In 1992, the North Delta Academy of Gospel Music held its first festival and joined forces with SRBA in 1993 to form the Sunflower River Blues & Gospel Festival.

The festival has gained widespread acclaim from the worldwide blues community, as well as from travel organisations and news media. It showcases Mississippi Delta talent in a town steeped in blues history and Southern hospitality. Although the festival has featured many acts from around the country and overseas, it primarily focuses on blues, soul, and gospel performers with roots in Mississippi.

The Sunflower River Blues Festival has played a crucial role in Clarksdale's development into a mecca for blues tourists and media, building on cornerstones laid earlier by local juke joints, Wade Walton's barbershop, and the Delta Blues Museum. The festival has also inspired more businesses to cater to the blues trade and new events, such as the annual Juke Joint Festival.

The city of Clarksdale has provided support for the festival and passed or amended laws to accommodate festival and nightclub activity. In addition, Coahoma County established a tourism commission in 1991. To recognise the efforts of those who have worked on behalf of blues and gospel, the festival began presenting an annual Early Wright Award in 1991 in honour of the legendary Clarksdale deejay, followed by the Julius Guy Award, named for the co-founder of the gospel festival.

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Clarksdale is a city located in Coahoma County, Mississippi, and is known for its rich blues music heritage. It was founded in the early 19th century and incorporated as a city in 1882. The city's name comes from the combination of the names of the founder, John Clark, and the natural landscape of the area, which was characterised by fertile delta lands.

Clarksdale was initially an agricultural community, with cotton as the primary crop. The arrival of the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad in 1884 boosted the local economy, and Clarksdale grew as a trading centre for cotton planters in the region.

The city's connection to blues music began in the early 20th century, and Clarksdale became known as the birthplace of the Delta blues. Many famous blues musicians, such as Muddy Waters, John Lee Hooker, Ike Turner, and Sam Cooke, were born or lived in Clarksdale. The city is also famous for the legendary "crossroads," where blues musician Robert Johnson is said to have sold his soul to the devil in exchange for his musical talent.

The old city centre existed near the Paramount Theatre. It was a movie theatre and possibly a performance venue at some point. However, specific information on this theatre's history and connection to Ike Turner or other musicians in Clarksdale is scarce and not readily available.

Ike Turner began his career playing blues and boogie-woogie piano in Clarksdale and later became a deejay, producer, and leader of the Kings of Rhythm band and the Ike & Tina Turner Revue.

Ike Turner, a rock 'n' roll and rhythm & blues pioneer, started his career playing blues and boogie-woogie piano in Clarksdale, Mississippi. He was born on November 5, 1931, less than a mile southwest of the Hotel Alcazar, at 304 Washington Avenue in the Riverton neighbourhood.

In his pre-teen years, Turner got a job at the Hotel Alcazar, where he operated the elevator and performed janitorial work. He eventually rose to fame as a deejay, producer, and leader of the Kings of Rhythm band and the Ike & Tina Turner Revue. The Ike & Tina Turner Revue became a powerful force in the music industry, blending their high-energy performances with a mix of rock 'n' roll, soul, and rhythm & blues.

Turner's legacy as a musician and band leader is an essential part of the history of American music. Despite facing personal and professional challenges throughout his life, his contributions to the development of rock 'n' roll and rhythm & blues remain influential and significant.

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The Hollywood Cafe, first located in Hollywood, Mississippi, and later moved to its current site, has been a renowned Delta dining establishment and an integral part of the region's musical history. Pianist Muriel Wilkins performed at the Hollywood Cafe for many years, and she and the cafe were immortalised in Marc Cohn's hit song "Walking in Memphis."

In addition to Muriel Wilkins, legendary bluesman Son House she performed at this site when the building served as the commissary of the Frank Harbert plantation, where House once lived. The Hollywood Cafe has played a significant role in the history and culture of the Mississippi Delta region, celebrating its rich musical heritage through live performances and its connection to notable musicians.

The Hollywood Café opened as a bar by Bard Selden in the summer of 1969. It eventually expanded its offerings to include live music and a diverse menu featuring steak, catfish, and its signature dish, fried dill pickles. Muriel Wilkins, an African American schoolteacher from Helena, Arkansas, was one of the key performers at the original Hollywood and its new location, entertaining customers with a wide range of songs, from standards to spirituals.

The Hollywood Café served as the setting for blues performances on the BBC television program "The Friendly Invasion" in June 1973. The café has hosted numerous blues musicians over the years. It has participated in several notable events, such as a ceremony where AT&T presented a $500,000 donation to the B.B. King Museum and Delta Interpretive Center.

Both Hollywood buildings were originally plantation commissaries, with the first Hollywood on Tate Place and the second on Harbert Place. Delta blues icon Son House lived on Tate Place during the 1940 census and performed at various locations in the area, including the B. F. Harbert commissary.

Over the years, the Hollywood Café has changed ownership multiple times, with the Owen family reopening the venue in Robinsonville after it was destroyed in a fire in 1983. John Almond and Michael Young acquired Hollywood in 2006. The Hollywood Café continues to be a hub for blues music and has played a significant role in the history and culture of Robinsonville and the broader Mississippi Delta region.

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Tunica River Park Launch is located in Tunica, Mississippi, near the Tunica RiverPark & Museum. It serves as a public boat launch on the Mississippi River and provides easy access for recreational boating, fishing, and other water-related activities. The launch area has ample parking space, and its location near the Tunica RiverPark & Museum allows visitors to explore the park's walking trails, interactive exhibits, and observation platforms.

The Tunica RiverPark & Museum is a popular attraction, featuring various exhibits that showcase the history, culture, and natural beauty of the Mississippi Delta region. The park also offers a range of educational programs and events for visitors of all ages. With its prime location along the Mississippi River, the Tunica River Park Launch allows visitors to experience the river's natural beauty and engage in recreational activities while also learning about the region's rich history and cultural heritage.

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Tunica River Park is located in Tunica, Mississippi, near the Mississippi River. The park is a popular attraction that showcases the region's natural beauty, history, and culture. It features a museum with interactive exhibits, walking trails, and observation platforms overlooking the Mississippi River. The park provides visitors with opportunities to explore the local flora and fauna, as well as learn about the history of the Mississippi Delta region.

Adjacent to the park is the Tunica River Park Launch, which serves as a public boat launch for recreational boating, fishing, and other water-related activities. The park's facilities and educational programs make it an ideal destination for visitors of all ages. The Tunica River Park is a great place to immerse oneself in the natural beauty of the Mississippi River and gain a deeper understanding of the region's rich cultural heritage.

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Sunset at Tunica River Park is a breathtaking sight, offering a serene and mesmerising experience. As the sun dips below the horizon, the sky transforms into a canvas of brilliant colours, ranging from warm oranges and reds to soft purples and blues. The Mississippi River reflects these colours, creating a stunning, shimmering spectacle. The tranquil atmosphere is accentuated by the gentle flow of the river and the rustling of leaves as the breeze gently sways through the trees. Wildlife, such as birds returning to their nests, adds to the enchanting ambience of the scene.

The name "Tunica" is derived from the Native American Tunica tribe, which inhabited the area around the Mississippi River for centuries. The tribe is known for their rich history and culture, as well as their significant contributions to the region. The Tunica people were skilled farmers, traders, and artisans, and their influence is still visible in the Mississippi Delta region today.

Tunica River Park, named in honour of the Tunica tribe, serves as a testament to the natural beauty and cultural heritage of the area, providing visitors with a deeper understanding of the region's history while allowing them to appreciate the stunning landscape, particularly during the magical sunsets over the Mississippi River.

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Navigation Aids and Markers are essential tools boaters and mariners use to navigate waterways such as the Mississippi River safely. The system of markers is controlled and maintained by the United States Coast Guard, ensuring consistent and reliable communication to those navigating the waters.

Like street signs, stop signals, road barriers, detours, and traffic lights provide information to drivers on land, Navigation Aids and Markers on waterways offer critical information to boaters. They help identify navigable channels, canals, and obstructions near these routes.

The U.S. Aids to Navigation System employs a straightforward arrangement of colours, shapes, numbers, and light characteristics to communicate information to mariners effectively. The primary purpose of this system is to promote safe navigation on waterways, reducing the risk of accidents and ensuring smooth passage for vessels of all sizes.

By providing a clear and consistent method of communication, Navigation Aids and Markers play a crucial role in ensuring the safety and efficiency of maritime traffic on the Mississippi River and other waterways throughout the United States and its territories.

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From the Tunica River Park, as you gaze across the Mississippi River, you'll see the lush greenery of Arkansas on the opposite shore. The majestic river flows gently. It is a powerful current carving a meandering path between the two states. The sunlight sparkles on the water, and the sky above stretches endlessly, painting a picturesque scene.

The beauty of the Mississippi River is amplified during sunset when the sky is adorned with a mesmerising blend of warm colours. The sun casts a golden hue on the water, and the rippling waves reflect the vibrant shades of orange, pink, and red. The silhouette of Arkansas' distant tree line contrasts with the captivating backdrop, creating a serene and enchanting atmosphere. This breathtaking view serves as a testament to the natural wonders along the rivers of the mighty Mississippi River.

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During the American Revolution, on June 16, 1775, George Washington appointed the first engineer officers of the Army. Engineers have since served in all American wars. The Corps of Engineers was established as a separate, permanent branch on March 16, 1802, and was entrusted with founding and operating the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. The Mississippi River Commission, created in 1879, manages the entire river and coordinates efforts to protect wetlands, stabilise riverbanks, maintain navigable channels, and build levees. Headquartered in Vicksburg, Mississippi, the commission directs policy for six Corps of Engineers Districts.

Throughout the 19th century, the Corps contributed to military and civil projects, including coastal fortifications, road and canal surveys, navigational hazard removal, Western frontier exploration, and construction of buildings and monuments in the nation's capital. In the 20th century, the Corps became the lead federal agency for flood control. It expanded its civil works activities, becoming a primary provider of hydroelectric energy and the nation's leading recreation provider. Its role in responding to natural disasters also increased significantly. The Corps has been involved in constructing lighthouses, developing jetties and piers for markers, and carefully mapping navigation channels. A massive riverbank stabilisation program, using woven willow mats and later concrete mats, along with riprap, has dramatically reduced erosion along the riverbank.

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The Tunica people, also known as the Tunica-Biloxi, are a Native American tribe originally from the Mississippi River Valley region of Louisiana and Mississippi. The Tunica people have a long history, dating back thousands of years. They were part of the Mississippian culture, which flourished between 800 and 1500 CE and were skilled farmers and traders.

When the Europeans arrived in the 16th century, the Tunica people lived in settlements along the Mississippi River. They were allies of the French and were instrumental in the founding of the city of New Orleans.

However, by the 19th century, the Tunica people were forced to move to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) along with other Native American tribes as part of the Indian Removal Act. The Tunic people suffered greatly during this forced migration, with many dying from disease and starvation.

In the late 20th century, the Tunica people began to regain their cultural identity and establish their businesses and government. Today, the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Louisiana is a federally recognised tribe with their government, language, and cultural traditions.

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The economy of Mississippi navigation is closely tied to the Mississippi River, which serves as a vital transportation artery for the region. The river has played a significant role in the area's economic development by providing a cost-effective and efficient means of transporting goods and resources.

The Mississippi River is a significant trade route for agricultural products, mainly grains such as corn, soybeans, and wheat, grown in the Midwest and transported to the Gulf of Mexico for export. This helps support the agricultural industry and the overall economy of the region. Additionally, the river enables the transportation of other bulk commodities, such as coal, iron ore, and petroleum, as well as finished goods, which contributes to various sectors of the economy.

Barge transportation on the Mississippi River is a vital component of the navigation economy. It is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly mode of transportation compared to other alternatives such as trucking and rail. Barges can carry large cargo volumes, reducing transportation costs and carbon footprint.

The navigation economy also supports a range of jobs, including those in the barge and towing industry, shipping, logistics, and port operations. The presence of a reliable transportation system along the Mississippi River attracts sectors and businesses to the region, which in turn generates employment opportunities and stimulates economic growth.

Moreover, the Mississippi River and its tributaries support recreational activities such as boating, fishing, and tourism, contributing to the regional economy. The river's rich history and cultural significance draw tourists worldwide, boosting local businesses and communities along the river.

However, the economy of Mississippi navigation also faces challenges. Ageing infrastructure, such as locks and dams, must be maintained and upgraded to ensure the efficient flow of goods along the river. Environmental concerns, such as flooding, sedimentation, and the impact of human activity on the river ecosystem, also need to be addressed to ensure the long-term viability of the navigation economy.

Uploaded by Evgeny Praisman

The Hilton Garden Inn Memphis East Germantown is a modern hotel in Germantown, Tennessee, offering comfortable accommodations and amenities such as an indoor pool, fitness centre, and on-site restaurant. The hotel is near several popular attractions, including the Germantown Performing Arts Center, Cameron Brown Park, and the Mike Rose Soccer Complex.

Germantown is a city in Shelby County, Tennessee, founded in 1836 by European immigrants from Germany, Switzerland, and France. Today, it is a prosperous suburb of Memphis with approximately 40,000 residents, known for its high-quality schools, historic homes, and parks. Germantown was named one of the "Top 100 Best Places to Live in the United States" by Money magazine in 2007.

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