Places to visit

Warsaw - the first acquaintance.


Description:

A short walk through the main sights of the old Warsaw and the New City - the quarters of the nobility after the transfer of the capital of Poland from Krakow to Warsaw. The history of churches and temples, the Polish kings and the tragedy of Warsaw during the Second World War, as well as small pages of human destinies and passions. Translated with Google Translate

Distance
2.33 km
Duration
2h 1 m
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Places with media
17
1
Sigismund's Column
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

Due to its central location between the two capitals of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Krakow and Vilnius, and the fact that Gdansk, which was constantly threatened by the Swedes, was located quite close, Warsaw became the capital of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and at the same time Poland itself in 1596, when Sigismund III moved here with his yard from Krakow. Zygmunt Column This is the oldest non-religious monument in Warsaw. It is located in the center of the Platz Zamkow, (Zamkova Square). The column appeared in 1644 by order of the son of Zygmunt II, Vladislav IV. The 22 m high monument consists of a Corinthian granite column, supported by a high plinth and topped with a bronze statue of a ruler, depicted with a cross in his left hand and a sword in his right. This figure is the work of Clemente Molly, and the whole monument was designed by Augustin Losha the Elder and Constantino Tenkalla, two Italian architects working at the court of Vladislav. This monument was an unusual way for the secular ruler to perpetuate his father. Earlier, a form of glorification was adopted by installing statues in a niche on the southern facade of the Palace. Despite repeated damage and repairs, the statue retains its original appearance. The column on which it stands, however, has already been replaced twice. Translated with Google Translate

2
the Royal Castle
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

The royal castle (Zamek Królewski) was the residence of the Polish kings. Like the whole old city, it was completely reconstructed in the 70s of the 20th century as a symbol of Polish statehood. The decision to build the Royal Castle (Zamek Królewski) was made when Zygmunt III Vasa transferred the capital from Krakow to Warsaw in 1596. It was built in the early Baroque style by Italian architects Giovanni Trevano, Giacomo Rodondo and Matteo Castelli between 1598 and 1619. The palace included the early castle of the princes of Mazovia. The succeeding rulers rebuilt the castle many times. The late Baroque façade overlooking the Vistula River dates back to the years of August III's rule, and the magnificent interiors are from the time of August Stanislav. Completely destroyed by the Germans during World War II, the castle was reconstructed from 1971 to 1988. Translated with Google Translate

3
St. John's Cathedral
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

The Cathedral of St. John After suffering the destruction during World War II was rebuilt in the Gothic style. The Cathedral of St. John began its history as a parish church at the beginning of the 15th century, receiving the status of a cathedral only in 1798. For all the years of its existence, the crowned heads have consistently endowed it with new chapels and other elements. Important ceremonies were held here, including the coronation of Polish rulers. Including the last king of Poland Stanislav August Poniatowski in 1764. After less than 30 years of his reign, he took the oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the Polish Republic on May 3, 1791. Many famous Poles are buried in the cathedral, including the Polish commander Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński. Being seriously damaged during World War II, the cathedral was rebuilt; its new facade was designed by Jan Zakhvatovic in the spirit of the Mazovian gothic. Prince Konrad II Chersky, the brother of Boleslav - the founder of Warsaw and his successor, built a wooden church, later destroyed by Lithuanians. At this place Conrad ordered the construction of a brick church, which received the name of St. John the Baptist and later became a cathedral. The first historical document confirming the existence of Warsaw dates back to 1313 and refers to this cathedral. St. John’s Cathedral is also mentioned in a lawsuit against the Teutonic Order, held here in 1339. At the beginning of the XIV century, Warsaw became one of the residences of the Dukes of Mazovia, and in 1413 became the capital of Mazovia. Translated with Google Translate

4
Shrine of Our Lady of Graces
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

Jesuit Church The sanctuary of Our Lady of Mercy, the patron saint of Warsaw, in the style of Baroque-Mannerism was restored after World War II. The church was built for the Jesuit Order between 1609 and 1629. Despite the fact that he had a changeable history, he remained without major changes until 1944, when he was almost completely destroyed during the German occupation. The somewhat unusual architecture of the church was restored on the basis of the original plans. Located in a narrow space, it has a unique layout; its dome allows you to create the feeling that the altar in the center is flooded with light falling from an elliptical dome over the apse. Translated with Google Translate

5
St martin's church
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

In the church of St. Martin is a striking modern crucifix, which includes a fragment of the figure of Christ, burned during the Warsaw uprising of 1944. The modern post-August church is the result of two major Baroque reconstructions, carried out in 1631-6 and in the first half of the 18th century. The last phase of the restructuring took place under the guidance of architect Karol Bay, who designed an interesting undulating facade. Later, the historic baroque interior decoration was destroyed in 1919. Only a partially burned crucifix survived. After the war, the interior was carefully restored by the project of sister Alma Skrzhidlevskaya, and the crucifixion is included in the modern design. In the 1980s, the church was the meeting place of political opposition to the communist government. Translated with Google Translate

6
Warsaw Siren
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

In Warsaw, there are two monuments of the Warsaw siren. The one that is now installed on the market square of the Old Town is considered the oldest. It was designed from 1854 to 1855. sculptor Konstantin Hegel. It was cast from zinc in the factory of Karl Minter. In the same year of 1855, it was installed on artificial rock fragments with a fountain in the center of the Old Town market square. Thus, together with two large wells, located on two opposite sides - the side of Jan Deckert (Strona Dekerta) and the side of Ignacy Zakshevsky - the monument was a new system of urban water supply. In 1914 they decided to disassemble the fountain, and in its place install a new one, which after fifteen years it was decided to remove. In 1928-1999, the sculpture was transported many times from place to place. And only in November 1999 they returned to its historic place on the market square of the Old City. In 2008, it was re-cast in bronze, and the original was handed over to the Warsaw City Museum. In the emblem of the Old City, the Warsaw siren was depicted with bird legs and with a dragon body. In 1459, the image of the Warsaw siren added a fish tail and the upper half of the female body, as well as bird legs with claws. Currently, the Warsaw siren is a woman with a fish tail, with whom she began to portray from 1622 to the present day. In the left hand the siren holds a round shield, and in the right a short sword. On the emblem of the city from 1938, it is depicted on a red background. Translated with Google Translate

7
Rynek Starego Miasta - Strona Dekerta
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

At the end of the 18th century, the rectangular market square, measuring 90 meters by 73 meters, was the most important place in Warsaw. Houses around the square were built by the richest members of the community. Many of them date from the 17th century, and it is they who give the area the character of this era. In the center there used to be a town hall, a weight house and stalls, all of which were demolished in 1817. In their place is now a statue of a mermaid (Syrenka). Each row of houses bears a name of one of the people actively participating in a political life of the city - the Diet. On the north side of the Decker House is named Jan Deckert, Mayor of Warsaw in the 18th century. All homes are interconnected. Now they are occupied by the Historical Museum showing the typical interiors of houses of citizens and workshops of craftsmen. Translated with Google Translate

8
Warsaw barbican
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky
  1. The Barbican and the city walls are a brick structure that once defended the northern approach to the city. Warsaw is one of the few European capitals where much of the old city wall has been preserved. These structures relate to the construction of the 14th century and mid-16th century. The double wall stretched along the fortresses and towers that surrounded the city. Barbican - retractable outpost - was built on the site of earlier gates and had the shape of a circle, fortified with fortress walls. Erected around 1548 by Janbattista from Venice, it was intended to protect Novomeysky Gate (Brahma Novomeisk). After the Second World War, the buildings of the Barbican were restored in full. Translated with Google Translate
9
Church of the Holy Spirit in Warsaw
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

The Church of the Holy Spirit is the place where pilgrims gather every year to go to Jasna Gora in Czestochowa. The Church of the Holy Spirit (Kościót w Ducha) already existed in the 14th century. Repeatedly expanded, it was burned during the Swedish invasion in 1655. Since the townspeople could not afford to restore the church, King Jan Kazimierz granted this site to the monks of Pauline from Czestochowa. They were famous for the protection of their monastery in Yasnaya Gora. At your own expense, the monks restore the church. In turn, they built a wall that defended the church and monastery. The current church was built in the years 1707-17 by the architect Józef Piola. The work was led by the talented Jozef Shimon Bellotti, and later Karol Ceroni. The interior was completed in 1725. A small-looking house, but large enough for a newsstand, adjoins the church. This house on Długa Street was built at the beginning of the 19th century on the smallest piece of land in Warsaw; It occupies only a few square meters and has its registration number. Translated with Google Translate

10
Raczynski Palace
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

The Raczyński Palace (Pałac Raczyńskich), rebuilt in 1786 according to the design of the royal architect Jan Christian Kamsetzer, contains the city archive. The former residence itself is an early neoclassical ballroom that was completely destroyed during the war. Today he is decorated with allegorical motifs on the theme of justice. The theme of the paintings clearly differed from the behavior of the last owner of the palace, Kazimierz Raczynski, who held a high post at the royal court and was considered by his contemporaries to be a traitor to the motherland. In the 19th century, the palace was the residence of the government commission on justice, and in the interwar period - by the Ministry of Justice. Especially tragic events occurred here during the Second World War. Traces of bullets on the wall of the building testify to the shooting on the street of 50 civilians who were arbitrarily arrested on the streets of the city in January 1944. But the worst crimes were committed here during the Warsaw uprising. On August 13, 1944, a tank shell exploded in the building, killing about 80 people, and on September 2, the Nazis killed several hundred wounded in the house when it was used as a hospital. Translated with Google Translate

11
Warsaw Uprising Monument
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

This monument was opened in 1989. He commemorates the heroes of the historic Warsaw Uprising. It consists of sculptures by Wincenty Kućma, in the architectural ensemble of Jacek Budyыa. The sculptures depict a soldier - one group protects the barricades, the other descends into the sewer. The rebels used the sewer system to move around Warsaw during the uprising. The descent into one of these sewers is still located near the monument. It was in front of this monument, during the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the uprising, the president of the Federal Republic of Germany Richard Herzog apologized to the Polish nation for launching the Second World War by the Third Reich and the bloody suppression of the Warsaw Uprising. Translated with Google Translate

12
Iglesia san jacinto
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky
  1. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Jesuits began work on a gothic altar for the church of St. Jacek (Kościół św Jacka). At this time, the Dominicans built a baroque church in the Old Town. However, the work was interrupted by the plague that raged in Warsaw in 1625, the few remaining monks continued their ministry and gave communion to the believers through the holes made in the door. Construction was completed in 1639. Next to the church was erected the largest monastery in Warsaw. Interesting features of the interior of the church, rebuilt after the Second World War. It includes beautiful vaults over the aisles, a Gothic altar decorated with Lublin-type stucco. It is also worth noting the tomb of Adam and Malgorzata Kotovsky in the Baroque style, made by Dutch architect Tilman van Gameren. Adam Kotovsky was a peasant. He moved to Warsaw, managed to make a fortune and bought himself a noble title. Translated with Google Translate
13
Maria Skłodowska-Curie Museum
Maria Skłodowska-Curie Museum

The most important street of the New City is Freta Street. It developed along the old route leading from Old Warsaw to Zakrochim. At the end of the 14th century, buildings began to appear along it, and in the 15th century it entered the borders of New Warsaw. There are some good antique shops and cafes on this street. In the house number 15, was born Marie Curie. Now here is a museum. Translated with Google Translate

14
Rynek nowego miasta
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

The heart of the New City is the market square (Rynek Nowego Miasta). It was originally a rectangle. The square received its strange triangular shape after the reconstruction of 1818. The town hall, which stood in the center of the square, was demolished, and a magnificent view of the baroque dome, crowning the church of St. Casimir. Destroyed in 1944, the square was rebuilt in a new style, resembling the 18th century, however, the preserved buildings around the square well of the 19th century hint at what the square was in the original. The facades of many houses are covered with frescoes of social realism. Translated with Google Translate

15
Roman Catholic Church Of St Casimir
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

The church and monastery of the Holy Order, designed by Tilman van Gameren, was built in 1688-92. King Jan III of Sobeisky and Queen Maria Casimira. The remarkable domed building is distinguished by a clear architecture in the style of classical baroque. In its proportions lies the magic of architecture. The whole church was restored after the war. The most beautiful reconstructed detail is the tomb of Princess Maria Carolina of Bouillon, granddaughter of Jan III of Sobeysky - the last of its kind. She loved Mikhail Kazimierz Radzivill all her life, but she was married to others. Her inconsolable heart was embalmed and kept in the parish church in Zhovkva - the Lviv detachment, and the granddaughter of the titled persona was beheaded during the French revolution. At the back of the monastery is a garden, unchanged from the 17th century, which descends in tiers to the Vistula River. Translated with Google Translate

16
Church of the Virgin Mary
Uploaded by Ilya Polotsky

The brick bell tower of the Church of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary (Kościół Nawiedzenia) rises above the roofs of houses on the banks of the Vistula River. This church is the oldest in the New Town. It was built at the beginning of the 15th century by the Princess of Mazovia, Anna, wife of Janusz I, and it is believed that it stands on the site of a pagan sacred temple. The restoration, carried out in the 19th century, changed the appearance of the building several times. Damaged, like many other Polish buildings during World War II, it was later rebuilt in the 15th century Gothic style. The arch above the altar was completed manually, without the use of ready-made forms. At the cemetery near the church stands a modern statue of Valerian Lukasinsky (1786-1868), the founder of the national-patriotic society. From the terrace next to the view of the Vistula valley. Translated with Google Translate

17
Maria Skłodowska Curie Monument
Maria Skłodowska Curie Monument

Here a walk through the city ends. Translated with Google Translate

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