Napoleon III not only built modern Paris but also succeeded in the role of president and monarch. As a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, he came to power as president of the republic. He ended his rule in German captivity, becoming the last emperor of the last French empire. The first bridge on this site was built of cast iron and was intended to pass carriages from one bank of the Seine to the other. It was opened in 1861 and is dedicated to the battle near Solferino's Italian town when the French and Italians defeated the Austrians. A hundred years later, the bridge was replaced with a modern one. It is completely pedestrianized and leads directly to the Orsay Museum.