Places to visit in Moscow

Moscow City, Arbat, Alexander Garden and Red Square.


Description:

The route consists of three different districts of Moscow that are completely different from each other. City is modernity, offices, high-rise glass skyscrapers and the atmosphere of a business center in the super modern Western style. Arbat - old and new - is a window into the hysterical and Soviet past of the city. Alexander Garden and Red Square are the heart of Moscow. The route can be divided into three separate parts, and you can visit them a full day. Translated with Google Translate

Author & Co-authors
Evgeny Praisman (author)
I’m a professional historian and tour guide. I have visited almost 50 countries and more than 300 cities and share my routs through Pinsteps easily and with a big pleasure. Hope you will enjoy my pathways and share them with your friends!
Distance
16.64 km
Duration
8h 47 m
Likes
27
Places with media
56
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Moscow Bashnya Gorod Stolits
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The business district Moscow City was conceived not only as a grand architectural, engineering and image project, but also as the largest investment project in the modern history of Moscow. The global financial crisis of 2008–2009 had a tremendous impact on Moscow City. Until now, the project is not working at full capacity. One of the most elegant complexes is the tower of capitals; these are two skyscrapers dedicated to Moscow and St. Petersburg. They look like huge cubes or parallelepipeds placed one on another with some shift one relative to another. In the first skyscraper - the tower of Moscow 73 floors in the tower of St. Petersburg 65. Translated with Google Translate

The tower of St. Petersburg is by far the most "habitable", and it was filled with one of the very first. On the 18th floor there is a passage connecting two skyscrapers. Translated with Google Translate

Birch City is a trendy restaurant in Moscow City. This is the second branch in the network. The first has long been well established on Rublevskoye Highway. In the detailed information you can find out what has been prepared for guests by one of the most "flitty" restaurants of the city. Translated with Google Translate

It offers a beautiful internal view of the Federation Tower - the highest tower of the complex and the golden-brown one is reflected in the glass of the skyscrapers - the only non-blue tower - the Mercury Tower. Translated with Google Translate

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Empire Tower
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Empire Tower is a business center and apartments. Its construction allowed to conduct the first stage of settlement in 2013 and immediately began the second stage of development. Between investors Pavel Fuchs and Oleg Grankin, disputes and controversies arose that reached the court proceedings, but with the mediation of Valentin Yumashev. Pavel Fuchs is from Kharkov. Received an architectural education. He is known as a successful businessman and philanthropist. He is married, he has four children, one of the daughters married a British billionaire of Lebanese descent. Oleg Grankin is from Poltava. Candidate of Economic Sciences married second marriage to Lyudmila Yumasheva - aunt Valentina Yumasheva. Valentin Yumashev comes from Perm. Journalist. He worked in "Komsomolskaya Pravda" in "Moskovsky Komsomolets" and in the magazine "Spark". Under Boris Yeltsin, he was the head of the presidential administration. Wife second marriage to the daughter of B. Yeltsin - Tatiana Dyachenko. Translated with Google Translate

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Moscow City Museum
Moscow City Museum

The Evolution Tower spun around its axis was originally planned as the world's largest palace of marriage. However, after the crisis of 2008, the project moved to a regular business and trading tower. The city park is located on the roof, and next to the Moscow Tower, the Bagration Bridge crosses the river leading to Kutuzovsky Prospekt. Translated with Google Translate

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Coffee shop "Starbucks". 1st floor.
Coffee shop "Starbucks". 1st floor.

In the middle of the City Center is a separate shopping and entertainment complex. From it exits to the main metro stations that are suitable for the project. Virtually every cent tower has its own viewing platform. Tickets to the observation deck at the Federation Tower need to be bought at this mall. The observation deck in the Federation Tower is located on the 89th floor, and it is the highest. Translated with Google Translate

The Federation Tower consists of two towers, western and eastern. The height of the western tower is 242 m, and the eastern one is 374 meters. Translated with Google Translate

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K.O.R.D.
K.O.R.D.

The eastern tower was the highest in Europe until October 2017, giving way to the championship of the famous Petersburg tower Lakhta. Nevertheless, the observation deck on the 89th floor in the Federation Tower continues to be the highest in Europe. Translated with Google Translate

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Federation Tower observation deck
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From the observation platform, the city is perfectly visible in the palm of your hand. Moscow occupies a huge area in it according to official data is home to 12 million people, at the same time the height of the 89th floor allows you to see almost the entire city. Below us are already known to us the tower of Evolution, the Empire, two skyscrapers Moscow and St. Petersburg. To the right of them is a building called the “Embankment Tower”. Translated with Google Translate

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Federation Tower observation deck
Federation Tower observation deck

Here you can get a commemorative medal on one side of which is depicted Moscow State University - the tallest building in the city in Soviet times and on the reverse side of the complex Moscow City - the tallest building in the city today. Translated with Google Translate

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Federation Tower observation deck
Federation Tower observation deck

As part of the services provided, on the observation platform there is an ice cream conveyor belt in a glass - nostalgia for how it once was. This free delicacy is part of the ticket purchase service. Translated with Google Translate

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Federation Tower observation deck
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Northwest view. Kewar codes are installed on the observation platform. There is a simple application that allows you to point the phone at this code and get a 3D model of the towers. Look at them from the inside and rotate in 360 degrees and see the building from all sides. Before going down the elevator, there is a small souvenir shop where you will have to wait for a photo that was taken when entering the observation platform - do not forget to pick it up. Translated with Google Translate

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The complex goes metro station Exhibition. It was built to connect the complex with a network of metro lines. From here we go to the Arbat station. Translated with Google Translate

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Metro station Arbat. This station was the symbol of the Moscow metro. The ground station in its cross section is made in the form of a five-pointed star. It is decorated with a large inscription: "Metro", and it should have been decorated with a sculpture of a Metro-builder and a Red Army man, but only a large five-pointed star and red flags decorated it. Translated with Google Translate

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Chapel Pillar
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We are located on Arbat Square. Here, almost on the site of the pavilion of the metro station until 1931, there was a church of Boris and Gleb, built back in 1525. Today a small obelisk reminds of this church. Behind him you can see a street that goes west - towards Smolensk. It is called the Arbat. In the 16th century, here, from north to south (along the present boulevards), the walls of White-stone Moscow, built on the orders of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich - the third son of Ivan the Terrible, passed. To the south, along Gogol Boulevard, until 1812 (the fire of Moscow) stood the wooden Arbat Theater, designed by Rossi, the famous Petersburg architect Rossi. Translated with Google Translate

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Mansion Arseny Morozov and Vozdvizhenka Street
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This beautiful house can not be left without any interesting traveler, and even Tolstoy in the novel "Sunday" puts into the mouth of the driver the words "Look what dominoes have brought." It all began with a fire in the equestrian circus, which stood on this place until 1892. Varvara Morozova bought this site to build a house for her son Arseny for his 25th anniversary. Arseny is a famous Moscow rake and a scooper, unlike his older brother Ivan, he was not engaged in the business of the famous Morozov family, but he wanted at least to surpass his brother in something and he planned a grandiose construction. The house was built under the impression of the Portuguese Pena Palace in Sintra, which Arseny visited between 1892 and 1897. On this trip Arseny was accompanied by his friend Victor Mazirin, he developed the project of the house. The construction was completed in 1899, and 10 years later in 1909 Arseny Morozov died, meeting with himself in the wake of the argument that the power of the spirit is stronger than carnal pain. He bequeathed his fortune and mansion not to his wife, but to his mistress Konshina. After the revolution, an experimental theater worked in the house, then the residence of the Japanese ambassador, during the Second World War, the English newspaper publishing house, and after the war the Indian embassy. Today in the mansion are government receptions. Translated with Google Translate

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This beautiful house is known to Muscovites in the Prague restaurant. And it was built as an apartment building at the end of the 18th century, and it was not until the end of the 19th that the Prague pub was opened. Local booths (cab drivers) called the Braga tavern in their own way. (Kstiti, Balagula - this is russified Baal Agala - "the owner of the cart" in Hebrew). After a realignment of the building, the Prague merchant Tararykin, who lived on the Arbat, turned Prague into a real prestigious restaurant. And in 1914, after the last rebuilding, plates appeared in the restaurant with the inscription: "Greetings from Tararykin." After the revolution, the dining room of Mosselprom appeared here, where Kisa Vorobyaninov drove from the novel 12 chairs to student Lisa. In the 30s there was a closed dining room of the NKVD, and after the war, Prague became a luxurious restaurant where government banquets were held. Translated with Google Translate

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We are at the beginning of the Arbat. The name of the street and the entire quarter was given, apparently, the word Arab or everything connected with Arap - the quarter of the 16th century merchants who traded with Persia. Here in the house number 5 lived the same merchant Tararykin, who created the restaurant Prague, and in the house number 1 behind the restaurant Prague there is a famous confectionery, which to this day pleases Muscovites with Prague cakes and other sweets that Prague has been proud of over the centuries. And if you have a snack and drink coffee, then the Kofix network will help you - they have not yet thought out everything cheaper for a dollar. Translated with Google Translate

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We are located on the corner of Arbat and Arbat Lane. Up the lane you can see the high-rise illuminated buildings of New Arbat - the former Kalinin Avenue - a miracle of Soviet architecture. Above us, the Genatsvalo restaurant is the oldest and most famous Georgian restaurant in Moscow. A building with a pink color on the corner was the place of the secret gathering of members of the Ishutinsky Circle - a revolutionary cousin Karakozov, who was executed for the assassination of Emperor Alexander II. Here is a modern chain of fast food restaurants “Hleb Nasushny” nearby. Translated with Google Translate

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Arbat
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At this place in 1931, during the great Stalinist restructuring of Moscow, the church was demolished with a bell tower. She belonged to the temple of St. Nicholas, built in the 16th century. Around the temple was Streltsy regiment. It was the second after Stremyanny regiment the Strelets regiment, which carried the guard in the Kremlin and accompanied the king on trips. The temple was built under Boris Godunov and stood until 1860, until restoration and rebuilding began. Translated with Google Translate

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This is one of the most ancient bookstores on the Arbat. He came to us from Soviet times. It was here that the novel The Master and Margarita Mikhail Bulgakov was published for the first time in the journal Moscow. Translated with Google Translate

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Varenichnaya number one - it is both tasty and cheap food, and the backwater of the Soviet era. Here everything is stylized under the era of 70 = 80 years. Waitresses in school uniforms, tablecloths and even dishes of the Soviet era. The Octobrists, the pioneers of the checkered curtains, the music and photos of those years - everything creates an atmosphere of carefree Soviet times, when everything stood still, everyone was provided with a certain level and nobody knew what unemployment was, overproduction crisis or mortgage loan. Translated with Google Translate

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House actor and theater Vakhtangov
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This house is known as the Vakhtangov Theater. It was founded as the third studio of the Moscow Art Theater in 1917 after the house was taken from its owner Berg. The house was built in the second half of the 19th century for brothers Sabashnikov famous publishers. Vakhtangov, among other things, was assigned to lead a small troupe of actors who worked in Yiddish productions. Thus, a decree was signed on the creation of a Jewish theater, which was given the name Habima (Scene) and which almost fully moved to Tel Aviv in 1924. Yevgeny Vakhtanglv died in 1922, but the play he staged Princess Turandot went on continuously for several decades. The fountain next to the theater displays one of the main scenery of the play. Translated with Google Translate

25
Tsoi Wall
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The wall of Viktor Tsoi appeared spontaneously. In 1990, after the news of the death of the singer, someone whipped black paint on the wall of an abandoned building in Krivoarbatsky Lane, the inscription: "Today Viktor Tsoi died." And in response, they wrote "Choi is alive." From that time to this day, this wall is a real national monument to Viktor Tsoi - the singer-soloist of the Kino group. At one time, the inscriptions were left here as on a kind of wall radio, it served as a way to communicate, and even a tradition appeared to leave a lit cigarette in a ashtray near the wall. For almost 30 years, this place has remained a monument not only to the singer and his songs, but to a whole epoch that lasted maybe several years, but went down in history as an eternity. Translated with Google Translate

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Monument to Bulat Okudzhava
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Bulat Okudzhava is not just a poet, bard, screenwriter, composer. For many generations, Okudzhava was a whole culture, a moral compass, a standard of ethical and human standards. His songs were loved and sang in companies, copied onto tape recorders, performed according to official and more often than not on official occasions. And if in the west Vysotsky is better known as a herald of truth and conscience, then Okudzhava was loved by the Soviet people as a kind, homely, “kitchen” close friend and spiritual guide. His song “Ah, Arbat, my Arbat, you are my Fatherland ...” is known to almost everyone born in the USSR. And she sounded in the Pokrovskie Vorota film - singing Moscow and the Arbat of the 60s. Okudzhava was born on May 9, 1924, lived for a long time on Arbat in the house number 43 and died in 1997. The decision to create the monument was made a week after his death and was personally signed by Boris Yeltsin. The monument depicts Bulat Shalvovich, emerging from the arch of the Arbat courtyard, on the pavement in the shadow of the maple. Translated with Google Translate

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Monument to Alexander Pushkin and Natalia Goncharova
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The monument to Pushkin and Natalia Goncharova appeared on the Arbat in 1999. On the contrary, there is an apartment in which the great poet and his aristocratic wife stayed in their marriage trip from Petersburg to Moscow. The monument emphasizes and conveys many interesting features of this eminent couple. For example, Alexander Sergeevich was shorter than his spouse. Natalia was younger than Pushkin by 13 years. Clothing and appearance suggest that an important event happened in their lives - they were recently married. And located in front of their home-apartment, they seem to say that they have just arrived and they have had enough time to enter and relax from the road. Translated with Google Translate

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The house at Arbat 53 belonged to a noble Khitrovo family. The house burnt down during the fire of 1812 was rebuilt in 1815. From December 1830 to May 1931, he rented an apartment in it. Pushkin. He came here with his wife immediately after the wedding in Petersburg on February 18, 1931. For a year from 1884 to 1885, the brother of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky - Anatoly rented an apartment in this house. A great composer visited him. After the revolution, the house housed the district amateur theater whose artistic board included Mayakovsky and Meyerhold. During the Stalinist repressions, the military tribunal of the Moscow military district was located here. After the war, communal apartments appeared in the house. Now here is the museum of the apartment of A.S. Pushkin. Translated with Google Translate

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Here in 1993 another branch of McDonald's was opened, in addition to the very first one, opened in Moscow in Gorbachev’s time on Pushkin Square on Tverskaya, then Gorky Street. And the house itself has been on Arbat since 1833, when it was rebuilt after the fire of 1812. Translated with Google Translate

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Smolenskaya Square
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Smolensk Square is located on the site of a former large earthen rampart, which gave protection to an expanded city behind the White Stone Wall (remember Arbat Square? Stop number 16 along the route?) Smolensky market reigned here, and the area around was occupied by merchants and archers from Anichkov and Poltev settlements (remember on Arbat Nikola Yavlensky stop number 21?) Up until 1820, all this space was a huge market and a flea market. In 1875, a covered market was built in the center of the square, but it could not accommodate everyone. Historical trade on Smolenskaya Square led to the construction of a number of outlets, one of which was the famous Torgsin of 1930 in which Bulgakov Korovin and Kot Begemot staged a pogrom. Torgsin is the first shop in the USSR where in 1931 it was possible to buy goods for old royal gold coins, gold and platinum, and even diamonds. In only 5 years, Soviet citizens voluntarily carried 100 tons of pure gold to Torgsin. In 1936, Torgsin liquidated about opened a grocery store - the second largest after Eliseevsky. In the early 1950s, a monumental building of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was erected on the square, and just before it, the corner high-rise multi-storey building of E.E. Orlova, built in 1906. Translated with Google Translate

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The tunnel under Novy Arbat Street (formerly Kalinin Avenue) and the Garden Ring (Tchaikovsky Tunnel) was the site of the death of three people on the night of the 20th to the 21st of August, 1991, when the attackers brought tanks into the White House to Moscow. Three young people Dmitry Komar, Ilya Krichevsky and Vladimir Usov died blocking the way to armored personnel carriers. They were awarded the Order of the Hero of the USSR by the then President of the USSR M. Gorbachev, then the first reward of the defender of the fatherland of free Russia B. Yeltsin and presented to the awards during the Putin era. All awards are awarded posthumously. On August 21, the morning after their death, General Yazov ordered the withdrawal of troops from the city. This date is considered the end of the events of the 1991 communist coup of the State Emergency Committee. Translated with Google Translate

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Novy Arbat
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Novy Arbat - or Kalinin Prospect, which was in Soviet times, became the hallmark of Moscow in the 60s. His trunk building included a single concept from the common space to architectural details and advertising. On the one hand, houses that were nicknamed "books" were put up. They resemble a hidden book, set vertically. On the other side of the avenue - single skyscrapers. Rhythmic rows of floors smashed high floors of the 12th and 13th level. The buildings housed institutions, trusts, central boards and ministries, and all together created a new architectural ensemble of the capital of the Soviet Union and the countries of the socialist community. Translated with Google Translate

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Vinyl records
Vinyl records

It was located in the Soviet era shop vinyl records. It was in such stores that plastics records were available with epic works of classical music, works of Soviet authors and variety music, and for the most part it was possible to find something from Vysotsky or Okudzhava. Translated with Google Translate

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Church of Simeon the Stylite
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The church of Simeon Stylites miraculously survived in Soviet times. It was erected in stone by decree of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich at the end of the 17th century. The church played an interesting role in the judge of many famous people. For example, in her marriage, Count Sheremetyev and his serf actress Zhemchugova-Kovaleva were combined. (we will see their mansion further). The writer Aksakov and Olga Zaplatina also entered into marriage bonds here. In 1852 from this church the abbot went to commune with Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol. On the Malaya Molchanovka street, M. Yu. Lived in a house near the church in 1829-1832. Lermontov, and in 1960 lived the actor Mochalov. Translated with Google Translate

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Moscow Government, Committees :, Control (Moskontrol)
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Mansion of Count Sheremetyev. He began to belong to Count Sheremetyev after he was acquired from the Rozumovsky family, a noble nobleman of the Catherine epoch. In 1801, in the church of Simeon the Stylite, the count and his serf actress Zhemchugova were married. The event was secret so as not to disturb the respectable nobility by such an unequal marriage. But soon Praskovi Ivanovna Zhemchugovoy passed away - she died in 1803, soon after moving to the northern capital. And in 1809 Nikolai Petrovich Sheremetyev was gone. The mansion passed to the son Dmitry. He, like his father, was engaged in extensive charity. Grandson - Sergey Dmitrievich was the last of the Sheremetyev family who owned the house before the revolution. Translated with Google Translate

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Lenin's Library
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The Lenin Library is a monument to proletarian culture and values. The building was conceived as a series of monumental structures with grandiose elements of constructivism and avant-garde architecture. However, the classical architectural school of the creators, the majestic antiquity of the Kremlin and the protracted construction did not allow for the initial plan. In spite of its monumentality, the building was nevertheless maintained in a classical manner and even a monument to FM. Dostoevsky also talks about real values, not a whirlwind of change. Here is the exit of the metro stations Library named after Lenin and Alexander Garden - the former Kalinin. On the other hand you can see the building of the Manege and Mokhovaya street. Translated with Google Translate

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The Alexander Garden is named after the second emperor Alexander the second who entered the throne in 1856. The construction of the park began after the war of 1812 and was timed to victory in the Patriotic War. Before the construction of the garden, along the walls of the Kremlin flowed the river Neglinnaya, which was crossed by four bridges Kuznetsky, Petrovsky Voskresensky and Troitsky. Today there is only the memory of the Trinity Bridge connecting Kutafya Tower with Trinity. The garden is located on the site of the river, which did not cease to exist, and, on the orders of Alexander the First, was taken into an underground pipe with a length of 3 kilometers. Translated with Google Translate

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Trinity bridge
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Trinity Bridge is the only bridge across the Neglinnaya River, which has survived to the present day. It connects Kutafya Tower with the Trinity Tower - the main tower of the entrance to the Moscow Kremlin. Like the Towers, the bridge was built by the Italian architect Aloiso de Milano - nicknamed in Russia by Alois Fryazin or the Old (senior), because 10 years after this Italian architect to build the Kremlin, Aloiso Lamberti di Montegnano will arrive - they will call him Alois New. The bridge was stone already in 1516, and in 1598 Boris Godunov would be elected to rule it. Translated with Google Translate

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Troitskaya bashnya
Troitskaya bashnya

Troitskaya Tower is the highest of the towers of the Kremlin. Its height is 80 meters. This is the only one of the Towers on which the Red Star was replaced by a double-headed eagle. Historical Russian kremlins were white-stone. Only Italian architects introduce red brick in the history of Moscow, which is so fashionable in the 16th century in Milan. Translated with Google Translate

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Obelisk in honor of the 300th anniversary of the reign of the Romanov dynasty
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The Romanovsky obelisk was erected in Alexander Park on July 14, 1914 in honor of the three hundredth anniversary of the rule of the Romanov dynasty. Fourteen days later in the same year, the First World War will begin. Russia will come out of it under the authority of Lenin, who will issue a decree on the demolition and redistribution of monuments to kings. This obelisk will bear the names of the ideologues of socialism, and only in almost 100 years later, in 2013, the obelisk will return its original appearance. Translated with Google Translate

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The middle Arsenal Tower was built on the site of the corner tower of the Kremlin from the time of Dmitry Donskoy. Later at the foot of the tower on the Neglinnaya River were erected dense. They were used to create dams, and the river was rich in fish. During the creation of the park, architect Bové built an Italian-style amusement grotto at the foot of the tower. In addition to Aleksandrovsky Park, Osip Bove, the son of the French artist Bove who found a new home in St. Petersburg during the French Revolution, owns such buildings in Moscow as the Bolshoi Theater and the Manege. Translated with Google Translate

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Monument to Patriarch Germogen
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Monument to Patriarch Hermogenes. was created in 2013. The identity of this person was not chosen by chance. There was a period in Russian history called the Time of Troubles. It was connected with the suppression of the royal dynasty after the reign of Ivan the Terrible, hunger, devastation, anarchy, the Swedish and Polish intervention, the history of False Dmitriy, the murder of Boris Godunov and Shusky, the rule of seven boyars. At that time, Yermogen (Yermolai) was one of the few who adhered to faith and conscience, and as such he entered the history of Moscow. Translated with Google Translate

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Here, in part of the bed of the Neglinnaya River, fountains are located - the brainchild of Moscow architects of 1996. The complex begins with four frolicking horses - the work of Tsereteli, they say. They also say that these are horses from the facade of the Bolshoi Theater, which remained here after the restaurant. Be that as it may, they symbolize the four seasons and they are called - the fountain of the four seasons. There is a belief that if you bypass them knee-deep in the water of a fountain, then the desire will certainly come true. And if 4 times, then enough for every season. Translated with Google Translate

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A pleasant garden and fountains tell stories about folk tales, about a fox and a crane, about a princess, a frog about an old man and a goldfish - all of them are gathered in a fountain-sculpture complex along Okhotny Ryad. Translated with Google Translate

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Okhotny Ryad
Okhotny Ryad

Here, across the river Neglinnaya, it was possible to trade game. These rows were intended for hunters and over time the name Okhotny Ryad appeared, which refers to the entire shopping complex from the Manege Square to the Theater Square. Translated with Google Translate

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Unkown soldiers grave
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Upper honor of the Alexander Garden. Here at the Red Wall is a memorial complex - the eternal flame. In 1966, on the 25th anniversary of the victory near Moscow, the ashes of an unknown soldier from a mass grave at the entrance to the city of Zelenograd were reburied at this place. A famous phrase appeared on the memorial complex: "Your name is not known, your feat is immortal." So a monument to the eternal flame appeared - the fire in it never dies away. Translated with Google Translate

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It overlooks the Red Square, the corner Arsenal Tower, Nikolskaya Tower up along the walls of the Kremlin, the building of the State Historical Museum and the monument to Marshal Zhukov. The corner tower is also called the Sobakinsky tower. Not far from her were the boyars of the Sobakins' boyars. The tower has a well - a spring for the supply of water to the besieged Kremlin. It was built by Italian architect Antonio Solari. In 1707, Peter the First ordered the loopholes to be expanded to install more powerful cannons in case of a siege by the Swedes against the walls of the Kremlin. The building of the historical museum, reminiscent of Russian terem architecture, was built in 1883 and became one of the most famous museums in the country, the collection of which included monasteries and churches, the imperial family and nobles, noblemen and merchants. The monument to Gerogiy Konstantinovich Zhukov was erected in 1995 on the 50th anniversary of the Victory. Marshal is depicted on horseback - as he took the victory parade on Red Square in 1945. It is noteworthy that the horse was white and they could only find such a horse in the cavalry regiment of the KGB. Translated with Google Translate

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Here, it is considered to be the starting point of all roads in Moscow and the Moscow region. And many think that the whole of Russia. Translated with Google Translate

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Resurrection Gate
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The Resurrection Gate is so named after the icon of the Resurrection of Christ, which has hung over the gate since 1680. Prior to this, the gate was called Iver by the name of the Iberian Icon of the Virgin. They were also called Coach Carriages - in the next carriage yard, or Lions in lions - donated to Ivan the Terrible from England. Called Chicken by the name of Chicken series. The general purpose of these gates is the entrance to the city called China City, which stretched from the Arsenal Corner Tower to the Moskvoretskaya Tower. Translated with Google Translate

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Kazan Cathedral is a definite symbol of Moscow and Red Square. At this place in 1612 (in the Time of Troubles) Prince Dmitry Pozharsky with the Moscow militia was able to defeat the Polish troops and liberate China City and the Kremlin. The army was the miraculous image of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God. It was in connection with these events that the Kazan Cathedral was erected at this place. But this place was not narrowed to keep peace and quiet in Russia. In this cathedral was taken into custody the champion of the Old Believers, Protopope Avvakum. Later, in Soviet times in 1936, the Kazan Cathedral was demolished, like many churches of China Town, when it underwent the Stalinist architectural reform. Only in Gorbachev's time began talking about the restoration of the Kazan Cathedral and in 1990 - 1993 at the expense of the city funds the collection was restored. Along the walls of the Kremlin in this place you can see the unusual Nikolskaya Tower. It is called so by the name of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker and was built by Italian architect Antonio Solari from Milan. It was through this tower that the Minin and Pozharsky entered the Kremlin after the victory over the Poles. During Napoleon’s march on Moscow, the departing French soldiers mined and blew up an arsenal, which led to the complete destruction of the Nikolskaya Tower and the partial destruction of the corner tower. However, according to tradition, the icon of Nicholas has not suffered. Translated with Google Translate

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Red Square was created by decree of Ivan the Third - Ivan the Terrible's grandfather. It was Ivan the Third who invited to Moscow the Italian architects who built the red brick Kremlin instead of the historic white stone one. He ordered to clear the territory at a distance of a cannon shot in China City, and so a square appeared along the eastern walls of the Kremlin. But, the place could not be empty and there were trades. The whole area became known as Torg or Great Torg. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the square was named Trinity after the erected cathedral in honor of the victory over the Crimean Khanate. Today this cathedral is known as St. Basil’s Cathedral. And only after the distemper, after Minia and Pozharsky, after the fires on the square and the name of its Fire Department, after Mikhail Fedorovich was elected from the Romanov family, during the reign of his son Alexei Mikhailovich, the square received the official name Krasnaya. But, whether in its beauty, or in dyed leather - no one will say. A huge store stretches along the square. It was opened at the end of the 19th century on the site of historical shopping arcades from the 15th century. And opposite the Kremlin wall is the building of the mausoleum VI. Lenin - a ziggurat of the Soviet era. Translated with Google Translate

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Uploaded by Evgeny Praisman

The Spasskaya Tower is the main tower of the Moscow Kremlin. Through it, kings and priests went out to the Red Square, greeted delegations and solemnly drove into the Kremlin. It was also built by Antonio Solari from Milan at the invitation of Ivan the Third. In their times, the tower was called Frolovskoy on behalf of the church Frol and Laurus in the territory of the Kremlin. The name of Spasskaya appeared during the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, the second king of the Romanov dynasty, when the icon of the Savior was not made by hands over the entrance to the tower. In the time of Peter the tower was decorated with a clock with chimes by Dutch masters. In Soviet times, in 1935, a red star appeared above the tower with a beam of 3.75 meters. Inside it, a 5000-watt lamp is lit and the star rotates like a weather vane. Translated with Google Translate

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Frontal place
Frontal place

Frontal place - this is the oldest surviving building in Red Square. This elevation was used as a stage for announcements for the people. For example, Ivan the Terrible delivered his speech from here in reconciliation of the boyars. However, there have been public executions. In 1682, Nikita Pustosvyatyu was beheaded, and in 1698 they executed the participants of the Streltsy riot. Translated with Google Translate

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Uploaded by Evgeny Praisman

The monument to Miniu and Pozharsky - the heroes of the militia from Nizhny Novgorod, who liberated Moscow from the Polish occupation, is one of the first sculptural monuments in Russian history and was created entirely with donations from citizens. In Russia, it was customary to erect chapels to commemorate events. Only from the epoch of Peta the construction of monuments begins, first of all, to Peter himself. In 1818, a monument to Citizen Minyu and Prince Pozharsky appeared in the center of Red Square, as a sign of not only the victory over the Poles in 1612, but also the victory over the French in 1812. In Soviet times, they decided to move the monument, arguing that parades should be held on the square. However, there is another opinion among Muscovites. Minin pointed to the Mausoleum. The sculptural composition itself seems to call for a fight, and Minin pointed to the Mausoleum with a pointing finger. In 1931, the monument took its present place. Translated with Google Translate

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St. Basil's Cathedral
Uploaded by Evgeny Praisman

The Red Square complex is completed by St. Basil’s Cathedral. It was built by order of Ivan the Terrible to commemorate the capture of Kazan - the capital of the Kazan Khanate. Later, a church was built over the grave of St. Basil the Blessed - who was considered to be a seer and blessed while still alive. They say that he was the confidant of Ivan the Terrible and predicted the main events of his life. For this reason, the church became known as St. Basil's Cathedral. It is believed that the temple was built Russian architect Postnik Yakovlev, nicknamed Barma. Translated with Google Translate

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